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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 112.

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beyond the neighbourhood of the Ghats, becomes gradually less
broken. The highest peaks in the District are in the north-west:
the hill of KALSUBAI, believed to attain a height of 5,427 feet above
the sea; and the Maratha forts of Patta and HARISCHANDRAGARH.
Farther south, about I8 miles west of Ahmadnagar city, the hill of
Parner rises about 500 feet above the surrounding table-land and
3,240 feet above sea-level. The chief river of the District is the
GODAVARI, which for about 40 miles forms the boundary on the north
and north-east. The streams of the Pravara and Mula, flowing
eastwards from the Western Ghats along two parallel valleys, unite,
and after a joint course of about I2 miles fall into the Godavari
in the extreme north-east of the District. About 25 miles below the
junction of the Pravara, the Godavari receives on its right bank the
Dhora, which rises in the high land in the east, and runs a northerly
course of about 35 miles. The southern parts are drained by two
main rivers, the Sina and the Ghod, both tributaries of the BHIMA. Of
these, the Sina, rising in the highlands to the right of the Mula, flows
in a straight course towards the south-east. The river Ghod, rising in
the Western Ghats and flowing to the south-east, separates the Districts
of Ahmadnagar and Poona. The Bhima itself, with a winding course
of about 35 miles, forms the southern boundary of the District. Besides
the main rivers, there are several tributary streams and watercourses,
many of which in ordinary seasons continue to flow throughout the year.
No detailed geological survey of the District exists. From some
observations of Mr. Blanford's, published in i868 in the Records of the
Geological Survey of India, it is known that Ahmadnagar consists
principally of horizontal beds of basalt belonging to the Deccan trap
series. The valley of the Godavari in the neighbourhood of Paithan
is occupied by pliocene or pleistocene gravels, shales, and clays, con-
taining bones of extinct mammalia.
The District, particularly the Akola tdluka, possesses a varied flora,
the Konkan forest type being prevalent on the rainy Ghats, and the
less numerous Deccan types appearing on the plains and hills to the
eastward. The banyan, nandruk, babl, nim, and mango grow on most
roadsides; and among wild flowers, Clematis, Cleome, Capparis, Hibis-
cus, Heylandia, Crotalaria, Indigofera, Ipomoea, and Leucas are common.
Pomegranates and melons of good quality are grown in the District.
Tigers are seldom found, but leopards are not uncommon. Wolves
are occasionally met with. In the open country antelope are
numerous. Among game-birds, partridge, quail, and sand-grouse
are noticeable. There are a few duck and snipe. Hares are common.
The climate is on the whole genial. The cold season from
November to February is dry and invigorating. A hot dry wind from
the north-east then sets in, lasting from March to the middle of May,

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