other products, sugar-cane to a small extent, tobacco, pan, and vege-
tables of many kinds are raised in irrigated lands.
Cotton was first introduced by a Hindu merchant of Ahmadnagar in
I830. It prospered and is now largely grown in the east. The ryots
have availed themselves extensively of the Land Improvement Loans
Act, and more than 39 lakhs was advanced during the ten years
ending 1904, including 25 lakhs under the Agriculturists' Loans Act.
Of this sum 8 lakhs was advanced during the famine of i896-7, and
27-7 lakhs during the four years ending 1902-3.
The introduction of tongas or pony carriages during the last thirty
years has interfered with the breed of fine, cream-white, straight-horned
Hunurn bullocks formerly used for riding or drawing carts. Efforts are
being made by Government to revive the famous breed of Bhimthadi
horses, which was allowed to degenerate after the establishment of
British supremacy in 1803 and was largely drawn upon during the
Afghan War. Fourteen horse stallions, as well as five pony stallions,
are stationed in the District in charge of the Army Remount
department, and an annual horse show is held at Ahmadnagar, when
prizes are given for good young stock and brood mares. Dhangars
keep a class of specially good ponies, which are known as Dhangaris.
Goats are numerous, and sheep, though fewer in number, are kept
by all except the richer and higher classes.
Irrigation from wells and water channels is common. Of the total
cultivated area, 98 square miles, or 2 per cent., were irrigated in 1903-4.
Government canals supplied 8 square miles, wells 84, and other sources
6 square miles. The Government works include the Bhatodi lake and
the Ojhar and Lakh canals. The Bhatodi lake was constructed by
Salabat Khan, the minister of Murtaza Nizam Shah I (1565-88), and
was restored by Government in I871. It is io miles from Ahmadnagar
and supplies 719 acres of land, the estimated area which it could
irrigate in a good year being I,500 acres. When full it has an area
of 315 acres, with an available capacity of 154 millions of cubic feet.
The Ojhar canal, with head-works in Sangamner, is 27 miles long,
irrigating an area of about 7,400 acres. It was commenced as a relief
measure in I869 and completed in 1879. The Lakh canal, with head-
works in the Rahuri taluka, is 23 miles long and supplies i86 acres. It
was completed in 1873-4. Both the canals draw their supply from the
Pravara river. The capital outlay up to I903-4 on the Lakh, Ojhar,
and Bhatodi works exceeded io lakhs. There are two irrigation works
for which only revenue accounts are kept. Nearly 30,000 wells are used
for irrigation, chiefly to water small patches of garden crops.
The area of forest land in Ahmadnagar is 849 square miles, of which
458 square miles are under the control of the Forest department.
Nearly 40 per cent. of the forest area is in the Akola and Sangamner