group), embracing the outer spurs of the Yoma; the eocene of the
Lower Tertiary (Negrais rocks); and the Triassic beds (axial group),
forming the crest of the Yoma, with an outcrop on the western side
of about io miles in breadth. These three classes of rocks are very
closely allied. They are all composed of shales and sandstones
intersected by bands of limestone, but the Cretaceous beds are less
hardened and metamorphosed than the other two.
The coast and tidal creeks are bordered by stretches of mangrove
and dani palm (Mipa fruli-'ans). The constituent trees of the tidal
forests are described in the botany paragraph of HANTHAWADDY DIS-
TRICT. The sandstone ridges opposite Akyab are covered with upper
mixed forest, containing abundance of Xylia dolabriformis, but no teak.
AMelocanna baccifera is plentiful in some localities. Evergreen forests
occur here and there, especially on Boronga Island. Inland are the
prolongations of the Arakan Hill Tracts, clothed with forest vegetation
of the type described under NORTHERN ARAKAN. Farther east are
the western slopes of the Arakan Yoma, covered with dense forest
and bamboo jungle, as yet unexplored by the botanist.
The most important wild animals are elephants, bison, tigers, and
leopards (including the black variety). Sadmbar are plentiful on the
hill-sides, hog deer are common in the low-lying jungle, and barking-
deer are to be met with throughout the District. Wild hog abound,
and, contrary to the usual rule in Burma, the jackal is found every-
Owing to proximity to the sea, the same extremes of heat and
cold are not met with as in Upper Burma. The cold season, from
December to February, is the pleasantest part of the year. The wet
season is trying, and the hot season is oppressive, although the actual
temperature recorded is not extreme. The average maximum tem-
perature for the whole year is 86° and the average minimum 74°, the
average mean being 78°.
The rainfall is heavy, amounting to I80 inches in 1903-4, and
varying from r73 inches at Maungdaw to 203 at Akyab itself.
The District has from time to time been visited by severe cyclones.
A devastating storm occurred on November 13, i868; and on May 17,
1884, a cyclone of very similar character caused great destruction of
property. There was another severe storm on April 25, 1895, but the
damage caused was not so great as in I884.
The District formed part of the kingdom of Arakan, and its earlier
fortunes are included in the history of that kingdom (see ARAKAN
DIVISION). During the first Burmese War, in 1825,
a body of troops under General Morrison crossed the
Naaf from Chittagong, and, co-operating with a flotilla that had come up
the Kaladan, attacked the town of Myohaung or Old Arakan. The force