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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 268.

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' from the tribe of Salwas,' and was originally Salwapura, then Salwar,
Halwar, and finally Alwar. The city has five gates, and is protected
by a rampart and moat on all sides except where the rocky range,
crowned by the fort, secures it from attack.
The population has increased from 49,867 in I88i and 51,427 in
189I to 56,771 in I901. In the year last mentioned, 39,791, or 70
per cent., were Hindus, and 15,758, or nearly 28 per cent., were Mus-
sulmans. Christians numbered II6, of whom 69 were Europeans or
Eurasians. The United Free Church of Scotland Mission has had a
branch here since I880.
The buildings of most note within the city are the palace, built chiefly
by Maharao Raja Banni Singh in the first half of the nineteenth century,
and the cenotaph of Maharao Raja Bakhtawar Singh, a fine specimen of
the foliated or segmental arch style. Of this tomb Fergusson writes :-
'To a European eye perhaps the least pleasing part will be the Ben-
gali curved cornices; but to any one familiar with the style its employ-
ment gets over many difficulties that a straight line could hardly meet,
and altogether it makes with its domes and pavilions as pleasing a
group of its class as is to be found in India, of its age at least.'
An old tomb, said to have been erected about 1393 in memory of
Tarang Sultan, who, according to some authorities, was the brother of
Firoz Shah Tughlak, and according to others the grandson of Nahar
Khan Mewati; several old mosques bearing inscriptions, the most con-
siderable being a circular one called Daira-kI-Masjid, and built about
I579, when Akbar passed through the place; and the Lady Dufferin
Hospital for women, are also deserving of mention. The last was
opened in I889, and has accommodation for 54 in-patients. To the
north-west of the city, and about I,ooo feet above it, stands the fort,
which is said to have been built by the Nikumbha Rajputs who held
the country before the Khanzada occupation. Its ramparts extend
along the hill-top and across the valley for about 2 miles. Outside the
city are the Banni Bilas palace and gardens; another palace recently
constructed, and known as the Lansdowne Kothi; the public gardens,
containing a small zoological collection; the lines of the Imperial
Service regiments; the cotton-press and ginning factory, the property
of a firm from Khurja in the United Provinces, in which in 1904-5
nearly 1,300 tons of cotton were pressed, and more than 1,880 tons
of cotton were cleaned; and the Central jail, with accommodation
for 379 prisoners, in which the principal industries are the manu-
facture of carpets, rugs, pottery, and aerated waters, as well as
printing and bookbinding. Near the railway station is a large tomb
known as that of Fateh Jang, who was probably a Khanzada. At any
rate his Hindu extraction appears to be indicated by the inscription,
which is dated I547, being in Nagari. This tomb is 60 feet square,

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