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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 285.


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ADMINISTRA T7ON70


285


The District is divided for administrative purposes into five tahsils:
AMBALA, JAGADHRI, NARAINGARH, RUI'AR, and KHARAR, the two last
forming the Ruipar subdivision. Each tahsil has a
Administration.
tahsilddr and a naib-tahsildar. The District is in
charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by six Assistant or Extra
Assistant Commissioners, of whom one is subdivisional officer in charge
of Rupar, and another is in charge of the District treasury. Ambala
is the head-quarters of the Deputy-Inspector-General of Police, Eastern
Range, and of an Executive division of the Public Works department:
The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for
the criminal justice of the District. The civil judicial work is under a
District Judge, and both officers are supervised by the Divisional Judge
of the Ambala Civil Division. There are three Munsifs-at head-
quarters, Jagadhri, and Rupar. There are also Cantonment Magistrates
at Ambala and Kasauli, with an assistant cantonment magistrate at the
former place, and seven honorary magistrates. The predominant forms
of crime are burglary and cattle-theft.
In the revenue history two periods of chaos have to be distinguished;
the first between 1763 and 1809, when the Sikhs having crossed the
Sutlej proceeded to divide the country among themselves and rule it
with degrees of extortion which varied with the position, necessities, and
temperament of individual chieftains; the second between 1809 and 1847,
the period of British protection, when confiscation followed escheat, and
so-called settlement followed either, under conditions so diverse as to
baffle any uniformity of treatment, fiscal or historical. The summary
settlements were invariably pitched too high, the demand being fixed by
simply commuting at cash rates the grain collections made by the Sikhs.
The only data were the accounts of the former payments, and the
estimates made by leading men-not unbiased financiers, as their revenue
assignments rose and fell with the Government demand. A regular
settlement for the whole cis-Sutlej tract was carried out between 1847
and 1855, and remained practically unaltered until the revision com-
menced in 1882. The assessment, though not unduly light, was fair
and, helped by the rise of prices that began in i860, worked without any
difficulty. The Jagadhri tahsil was resettled in 1882-9, and the rest of
the District between 1883 and I889. The average assessment on 'dry'
land is Rs. I-3-6 (maximum, Rs. 2-2; minimum, 5 annas), and on
'wet' land Rs. 3-10 (maximum, Rs. 5; minimum, Rs. 2-4). The
result of these revisions was an increase of one lakh in the assessment
of the whole District. The demand, including cesses, for 1903-4 was
13.8 lakhs. The average size of a proprietary holding is 2-7 acres.
The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown
in the table on the next page, in thousands of rupees.
The District contains five municipalities AMBALA, RUPAR, JAGADHRI,



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