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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 287.


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A.4BALA CITY


287


Gazetteer (1892-3), and Settlement Report (I893); J. M. Douie,
Settlement Report of Karnal-Ambalah (1891).]
Ambala Tahsil.-South-western tihsil of Ambala District, Punjab,
lying between 30 7' and 30 27' N. and 76' 33' and 77 I2' E., with an
area of 355 square miles. The population in I901 was 218,006, com-
pared with 230,567 in 1891. The head-quarters are at the city of
AMBALA (population, 78,638). It also contains 295 villages. The land
revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 2.8 lakhs. The tahsil lies
in the open plain, and the hard clay subsoil is almost everywhere
covered with alluvial loam.
Ambala City.-Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of Ambala,
Punjab, situated in 30 23' N. and 76 46' E., on the North-Western
Railway and the grand trunk road, at the point where they are crossed
by the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka Railway; distant by rail from Calcutta
1,077 miles, from Bombay I,Io5 miles, and from Karachi 848 miles.
The population (1901) is 78,638: namely, Hindus, 39,601; Sikhs,
2, 68; Muhammadans, 32,149; and Christians, 3,6 xo-of whom 50,438
reside in cantonments. Ambala is chiefly important as being one of the
largest cantonments in India. The garrison, which is under the General
Officer commanding the Lahore division, consists of one battery of
horse artillery, with an ammunition column; one regiment of British
and two regiments of native cavalry; and three regiments of British and
one battalion of native infantry. The cantonment also contains
a mounted infantry school, companies of the Army Hospital and Bearer
corps, and detachments of the Punjab Light Horse and the North-
Western and East Indian Railway Volunteers.
The native city, which has a separate station on the North-Western
Railway, lies 4 miles north-west of the cantonment. Its name is possibly
derived from its mythical founder Amba, but is more probably a cor-
ruption of Ambwala, the 'mango village.' It was of no importance
before the lapse of the Ambala estate in I823, when it became the
residence of the Political Agent for the Cis-Sutlej States. The canton-
ment was established in I843, and in i849 it became the head-quarters
of a District. The civil lines are situated near the city, and contain,
besides the usual offices, a jail and a hospital. The city is well
situated as a commercial centre, and is an important cotton and grain
market. It also forms a depot for the supply of Simla, and carries on
a considerable trade in hill products, such as ginger and turmeric. The
article on AMBALA DISTRICT gives details of the modern industries.
A branch of the Alliance Bank of Simla has been established in the
cantonment.
The municipality was created in I867. The income during the ten
years ending I902-3 averaged Rs. 56,200, and the expenditure
Rs. 54,300. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 70,700, the chief source



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