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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 333.

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elevation of 3,000 to 4,500 feet. Along the slopes here, i8,500 acres
in twenty blocks have recently been opened out for coffee-growing; and
the department of Public Works has constructed a cart-road and bridle-
path through this area which, in addition to serving the coffee estates,
is expected to facilitate the transport of the rarer hard woods which
grow upon the upper levels of this part of the hills and have hitherto
been inaccessible. But the chief interest of this lower range lies in its
forest. It contains the celebrated teak belt. This varies in height
from 1,500 to 3,000 feet, and contains most of the timbers usual in
deciduous forests of the same elevation as well as the best teak in the
Presidency. In 1895 a teak-tree was cut here which was I24 feet high
and 23 feet in girth, and contained between 5oo and 600 cubic feet of
workable timber. Before I848 large quantities were exported from this
belt for use in the dockyards at Bombay, and the forests were so over-
worked that when systematic control was introduced felling was stopped
for some years. It has now been resumed both in the Government
forests and in an adjoining area of 27 square miles, which had been
leased from the Nambidi of Kollangod, a Malabar proprietor, for an
annual payment of Rs. 5,000, and is known as the Tekkadi leased
forest. The forest station, Mount Stuart, is in the Torakadavu valley
next to this. In I889-90 a tramway worked by bullocks was laid for
7 miles through the leased forest to the top of the ghat road leading to
Pollachi through the Anaimalai village, where the timber dep6t is
situated. Elephants drag the timber to the tramway, which then brings
it to a wire rope-way made in I899 from the head of the ghdl to the
low country, and also to a saw-mill, driven by a Pelton wheel fed by the
Torakadavu stream, which was put up at the same time. The rope-
way is over a mile in length with a fall of ,000o feet, and carries loads
up to half a ton. Much of the timber is trammed to the saw-mill, cut
up, and then trammed to the rope-way, by which it is run down to the
low country. Heavy logs go down the ghdt road by cart.
The forest museum at Coimbatore contains an excellent collection of
various woods, fibres, &c., found in the Anaimalais. Game is plentiful,
the hills affording shelter to bison (gaur), sdmbar, tigers, leopards, and
bears, and, on the high range, to the rare Nilgiri ibex (Hemnitragus
hylocrius), which is not found anywhere in India north of the Nilgiris.
There are also numerous elephants, considerable numbers of which
are annually caught in pits by the Forest department and trained to
timber-dragging or otherwise disposed of.
The only inhabitants of the Anaimalais are a few hundred jungle-
folk-Kadans ('jungle-men'), Muduvans, Pulaiyans, and Malasars.
('lords of the hills')-who live in rude hamlets on the slopes, and
subsist chiefly by collecting the minor produce of the forests, such as
cardamoms, rattans, wax, and honey. The Kadans have two customs

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