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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 336.


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336


ANANDPUR


the Baitarani river. Population (1901), 2,945. Anandpur is connected
by a fair-weather road with Keonjhar town and also with Bhadrakh
station on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. A considerable trade is carried
on, the rural and forest produce brought by land from the south-west
being bartered for salt carried by boats from the coast.
Anandpur.-Town in the Una tahsil of Hoshiarpur District, Punjab,
situated in 3I 14' N. and 76 31' E., on the left bank of the Sutlej.
Population (1901), 5,028. Founded by the Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur,
it became a stronghold of the tenth Guru, Govind Singh, who was
defeated here by the troops of Aurangzeb. It is still of religious
importance as the head-quarters of the branch of the Sodhis descended
from Tegh Bahadur's nephew, and contains many Sikh shrines and
monuments of interest. The municipality was created in 1867. The
income and expenditure during the ten years ending I902-3 averaged
Rs. 2,900. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,000, chiefly derived from
octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 2,600. There is a Government
dispensary.
Anantapur District (Anantapuramn).-The central of the four
CEDED DISTRICTS in the Madras Presidency, lying between I3 4r' and
I5 14' N. and 760 49' and 78 9' E., with an area of 5,557 square miles.
It is bounded on the north by Bellary and Kurnool Districts; on the
west by Bellary and the State of Mysore; on the south by the same
State; and on the east by Cuddapah District.
Anantapur forms part of the northern extremity of the Mysore plateau
and slopes from south to north. In the south the country has an
elevation of about 2,200 feet, which gradually decreases
aspects. to about i,ooo feet at Gooty in the north and 900 feet
at Tadpatri in the north-east. The eastern side of
the District, towards Cuddapah, is hilly, the Erramalas or Errakondas
('red hills') flanking that frontier in the north and other detached hills
breaking it farther south. The north-eastern portion is for the most
part an open plain of black cotton soil, surrounded by ridges of the
Errakonda range and containing long valleys running up into it.
Excluding this and the western portion of the Gooty taluk, which forms
part of the Bellary cotton soil plain, the general aspect of the District
is a barren, treeless, undulating plain of red soil, broken by long ridges
of almost equally barren and treeless hills. In the bottoms between the
ridges are occasional groves; but the uplands are extraordinarily bare,
and even on the hills the area of forest is small and none of it of any
density. In the south, the Penukonda tallk is very hilly and much of it
is consequently unfit for cultivation; Hindupur is for the most part flat;
and Madakasira is hilly and rocky towards the south, but to the west
more level. Except in the northern parts of the District, where there is
much cotton soil, the land is generally extremely poor and infertile,



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