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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 337.

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formed from the granitoid rocks on which it lies; but in Madakasira
it is richer and, aided by a better supply of water, is more pro-
ductive. This tSluk has long been known as the garden of the
Through the Tadpatri taluk run the low Muchukota hills. In other
parts of the District granite occurs in clustered and detached dome-
shaped masses, often of great boldness and beauty. The principal
clusters are those at Palasamudram and Penukonda. -The highest
point in the latter is 3,091 feet above the sea. Nearly the whole of the
District is drained by the Penner, which enters it from the south and,
after a course of about 80 miles nearly due north, turns suddenly
eastwards near Pennahobilam, and about 50 miles farther on passes into
Cuddapah. The Chitravati river enters the District in its south-east
corner and flows northwards. After feeding the great tanks at Bukka-
patnam and Dharmavaram, it turns to the north-east and leaves the
District in the Tadpatri tiluk, falling soon afterwards into the Penner.
A small portion of the Madakasira and Kalyandrug taluks is drained
by the Hagari northwards into the Tungabhadra.
Only the northern and eastern parts of the District have been
examined by the Geological Survey, and of the remainder it is only
known that it consists of crystalline rocks of Archaean character. In
the north-western corner a very narrow band of Dharwar rock enters
from Bellary District, being an extension of the Penner-Hagari band
of that system. It runs nearly south-east for 24 miles to its crossing
over the Penner river, when it trends south and south-by-west for about
22 miles. Beyond this point it was not mapped, the survey being left
unfinished. It probably dies out a few miles farther south. It contains
none of the hematites which are usually found in rocks of this class.
The north-eastern corner of the District is occupied by deposits of the
Cuddapah system, which continue northward into Kurnool District.
The Archaean gneissose rocks show considerable variety, but are mainly
granites. In the northern part a porphyritic syenitic stone forms a
number of rocky hills, and a band of the same kind stretches
southwards down to and beyond the Penner. A very handsome red
micaceous granite forms the group of hills near Nagasamudram in the
Gooty itluk. Granite rocks build the bold hills of the District, such
as Gampamalla, Singanamalla, Devarakonda (close to Anantapur town),
the Kalyandrug group, and the hills south and south-east of Dharmava-
ram.' A remarkable feature of the Archaean region is the large number
of dioritic trap dikes which traverse it. The Cuddapah rocks occupying
the north-eastern corner of the District are parts of the two lower groups
of that system which make a great semicircular band extending north-
west and north from Cuddapah District into Kurnool. Of sub-aerial
deposits, the only examples calling for notice are the great travertine
VOL. V. z

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