rocks-fossil waterfalls as they may be well designated-which occur in
the upper parts of the Kona-Uppalapadu valley.
Of economically valuable minerals diamonds come first; they occur
occasionally on the surface near WAJRAKARUR, but their source is as
yet a mystery. The neck of blue rock at this place bears a strong
resemblance to the Kimberley blue clay, but has been shown to be
of different origin. Corundum is found in many villages. Steatite of
good quality, compact and free from grit, is reported from Sulamarri
The ordinary plants of the District are those of the drought-resisting
classes, which will thrive even on barren soils. Euphorbias, Asclepiads,
and cactus abound. The most noticeable trees are the babul and the
margosa, but tamarinds also do well. All the stony wastes are covered
with the golden-flowered Cassia auriculata, the bark of which is used
for tanning; and among this is often seen the graceful Cassia fistula,
the Indian laburnum. The kanuga (Pongamia glabra) is largely grown
for its leaves, which make an excellent manure. Date-palms thrive in
some of the damper hollows.
The jungles bordering on Cuddapah contain bears, leopards, wild
hog, and a few samibar. Leopards are also found in some of the other
hills in the District. Antelope are fairly common in most parts of the
low country. Quail, partridge, and hares abound, but the District is
too dry to be a favourite haunt of water-fowl.
The climate is indeed one of the driest in all Madras, and, probably
in consequence of this, it is very healthy. The hot season begins early
in March and ends suddenly with the arrival of the monsoon, usually
early in June. Thereafter the climate is more pleasant than in most
Districts. The southern talcks of Madakasira and Hindupur, which
slope gradually down from the Mysore plateau, are considerably cooler
than the northern part of the District.
Anantapur does not get the full force of either monsoon, and the
rainfall in consequence is often deficient. It is also frequently irregular.
The south-west monsoon generally gives showers in June, July, and
August, and a good supply in September. The north-east rains bring
a good fall in October, but after that the rain is insignificant in quantity
until June comes round again. The average for the whole District for
the thirty-four years from I870 to 1903 was 23 inches (one of the lowest
figures in the Presidency), the two best months being September and
October (5-3 inches and 4-9 inches respectively). The centre of the
District (Anantapur, Dharmavaram, and Kalyandrug) is the driest part,
the fall there being less than 21 inches on an average; Gooty and
Tadpatri get about 23 inches; and in the three southern taluks, where
the fall is less scanty than elsewhere, over 24 inches is registered.
With the exception of famine, the District has enjoyed immunity