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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 404.

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Tlauk, and Kailasagarh (2,743 feet) in Vellore, both on the Javadis,
are other peaks of importance. Each has a small bungalow on its
summit, which forms a pleasant retreat in the hot season. Except
the Javadis, the hills are generally uninhabited.
The chief rivers of the District are the PALAR, and its tributaries the
Cheyyar and POINI. Except for a few days in the year, the beds of
these are dry, sandy wastes. The Cheyyar rises in the Javadis. It
first flows southwards into South Arcot District, then, bending to the
east and north-east, enters the southern tdluks of North Arcot, flows
eastward across them, and finally falls into the Palar near Walajabad in
Chingleput District. There are numerous other smaller rivers and
streams, but none of them is worthy of special note.
Geologically, the greater part of the District consists of Archaean
rocks, among which there are probably a few representatives of the
older micaceous, hornblendic, and talcose gneisses, and of the younger
thin-bedded quartz-magnetite schists. But, for the most part, the
Archaeans are represented by the more uniform plutonic gneissose
granite of the Baramahal type. This rock builds the edges and rugged
scarps of the Mysore plateau, as well as many detached spurs, drugs,
and tors. They are all cut through by granite veins, quartz veins,
and basic trap dikes, the last in great profusion. On the north-east and
east the Purana group of ancient unmetamorphosed sedimentaries is
represented by the high scarped Nagari group of hills and the southern
end of the Velikonda and Tirupati hills, which display grey and buff-
coloured Nagari quartzites and conglomerates of the second lowest
member of the Cuddapah series, in detached outliers from the great
Cuddapah-Kurnool mass. Upper Gondwanas (Rajmahals) are found
in three adjacent areas on the eastern edge of the District. They con-
sist of reddish sandstones and conglomerates, and clays and shales, with
loose conglomerates containing imperfect plant remains. They are
many hundred feet thick and dip at moderate angles to the east, dis-
appearing under the laterite and alluvium at the eastern edge of the
The flora of North Arcot presents no points of particular interest.
The growth on the hills is of the drier deciduous type usual to the
lower spurs of the Eastern GhBts, and in the low country are the
ordinary Coromandel plants. The chief trees are referred to under
Forests below.
The larger game includes the bison (Bos gaurus), which is found in
small numbers on the Javadis, and an occasional tiger. Leopards are
common throughout the rocky hills. Black bears, hyenas, sdmbar,
spotted deer, 'jungle sheep' or barking-deer, antelope, and wild hog are
also found in different parts of the District. Small game of the usual
kinds are plentiful, and peafowl and jungle-fowl occur in the forests.

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