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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 6, p. 13.

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a British force in 1819, and taken after a siege of twenty days, during
which there was a considerable amount of fighting, and the British lost
a hundred native soldiers by an accidental explosion in a battery.
Asiwan.-Town in the Mohan tahsil of Unao District, United
Provinces, situated in 26 48' N. and 80 28' E., on the bank of a fine
lake. 20 miles north of Unao town. Population (I9oI), 6,153. It is
said to have been founded in the eleventh century by a dhobi or washer-
man, named Asun, but has no history. Asiwan contains a number of
mosques and temples, and a fine masonry sarai built early in the
nineteenth century. There is a small manufacture of coarse cotton
cloth, and a market is held twice a week. A school has about
98 pupils.
Aska Tahsil.-Zamiznddri tahsil in the interior of Ganjam District,
Madras, lying between 19 I5' and 19 45' N. and 84 i8' and 84 45'
E., with an area of 407 square miles. It consists of the zanindaris of
Dharakota, Serugada, and Chinnakimedi, and the proprietary estates of
Aska, Kurla, and Devabhumi. The population in 901o was 115,883,
compared with 108,920 in I891. They live in 368 villages. The
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,25,000. The
land is fertile and well irrigated by the RUSHIKULYA Project and other
sources. Rice is widely cultivated, and sugar-cane is extensively grown
and made into sugar in a factory at ASKA, the head-quarters.
Aska Village.--Head-quarters of the tahasil of the same name in
Ganjam District, Madras, situated in I9 36' N. and 84 40' E., midway
on the road from Berhampur to Russellkonda, immediately above the
confluence of the Rushikulya and Mahanadi rivers. Population (I90o),
4,031. It is chiefly known for its sugar factory and distillery, which
belong to Mr. F. J. V. Minchin, and in 1903 employed an average of
393 hands daily. The principal feature of its operations is the ex-
traction of sugar direct from the cane by the diffusion process. This
is worked by a battery imported from Austria, and it is stated that
25 per cent. more sugar can thus be extracted than by powerful cane
mills driven by steam. In 1903 the out-turn of sugar was valued at
Rs. 1,7I,OOO, and that of spirit at Rs. 79,000. The sugar is chiefly
disposed of in the Berhampur market, and the spirit is supplied to the
excise tracts of the District under a monopoly contract with the Govern-
ment. The season for sugar manufacture is from January to the end of
March. Besides country spirit, other alcoholic liquors are manufactured
in the works and also aerated waters. Aska is the head-quarters of
a District Munsif and the residence of the proprietors of the Aska,
Kurla, and Devabhumi estates. It possesses a town hall, the gift of
Mr. Minchin, and a fine native chzattram (resthouse) constructed from
public subscriptions. A park is being laid out to commemorate the
coronation of His Majesty the present King-Emperor.

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