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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 6, p. 14.

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Askot.-Estate in Almora District, United Provinces, situated along
the Kali river, comprising 142 villages with an area of 400 square miles.
The land revenue payable to Government is Rs. 1,450, and the cesses
amount to Rs. 232, while the rent-roll is about Rs. 4,200. The estate
belongs to a Surajbansi Rajput, claiming descent from a younger branch
of the Katyfri Rajas who once ruled Kumaun, and the head of the
family bears the title of Rajwar. The Rajwars of Askot were conquered
by the Chands, but were left in possession of their estate on payment of
tribute. In I845 the estate was settled with the village occupants as a
zamindari in the plains; but subsequently the whole estate was settled
with the Rajwar, who may now extend cultivation to his own profit, but
cannot interfere with the possessions of the permanent tenants, as
recorded in the village papers.
Assam '.-The Province of Assam, which lies on the north-eastern
border of Bengal, and is one of the frontier Provinces of the Indian
Empire, is situated between 22 9g' and 28 16' N. and 89 42' and
97 I2' E. It is bounded on the north by the eastern section of the
great Himalayan range, the frontier tribes from west to east being
successively the Bhotias of Bhutan, the Bhotias of Towang-a pro-
vince subject to Lhasa-Akas, Daflas, Miris, Abors, and Mishmis; on
the north-east by the Mishmi Hills, which sweep round the head of
the Brahmaputra Valley; on the east by the mountains which are in-
habited by Khamtis, Singphos, and various Naga tribes, and by the
Burmese frontier where it marches with that of the State of Manipur;
on the south by the Chin Hills, the Chittagong Hill Tracts, and the
State of Hill Tippera; and on the west by the Bengal Districts of
Tippera, Mymensingh, and Rangpur, the State of Cooch Behar, and
Jalpaiguri District. The total area of the Province, including the Native
State of Manipur (8,456 square miles), is 61,682 square miles.
The name ' Assam ' is, according to some, derived from the Sanskrit
asama, which means ' peerless 'or ' unequalled.' It has been suggested
that this title was applied to the Shan invaders, now called Ahoms, and
was transferred from them to the country that they conquered. This
derivation is, however, open to the serious objection that in Assamese s
is softened into h, as in the name of the tribe; and there is no apparent
reason why it should have been retained in the name of the country.
1 Since the following article was written the small Province of Assam has ceased
to exist as a separate unit, and has been amalgamated with fifteen Districts of
Northern and Eastern Bengal to form the larger Province of Eastern Bengal and
Assam, which is ruled by a Lieutenant-Governor, with a Legislative' Council. The
account of the general administrative staff, the various departments, and the system
of legislation is thus obsolete; and the arrangements which are now in force will
be found described in the article on EASTERN BENGAL AND ASSAM. The remainder
of the article affords a generally correct account of that portion of the new Province
which was once known as Assam.

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