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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 6, p. 120.


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120


ASSAM RANGE


Assam Range.-A range of hills lying between 24 58' and
26 48' N. and 89 49' and 94 50' E., which runs almost due east and
west between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and Surma. It consists;
of the GARO, KHASI and JAINTIA, NORTH CACHAR, and NAGX HILLS,
and at its eastern end trends towards the north and is joined by the
PATKAI to the Himalayan system, and by the mountains of Manipur
to the Arakan Yoma. The general elevation is from 3,000 to 6,000
feet, but at Japvo in the Naga Hills a height of nearly Io,ooo feet is
attained. The Shillong peak (6,450 feet) is the highest point in the
Khasi Hills. Geologically, the range falls into two groups. The Garo,
Khasi, and Jaintia Hills and part of North Cachar are known as the
Shillong plateau, and consist for the most part of a great mass of gneiss.
The eastern portion is mainly composed of sandstones of Tertiary age.
Coal is found in the Garo and Khasi Hills, and in the hills south of
LAKHIMPUR, and lime on the face of the Khasi Hills overlooking the
plains of Sylhet. Through the greater part of their length the hills take
the form of sharply serrated ridges covered with dense forest, but the
central portion of the Khasi Hills is an elevated plateau consisting of
rolling downs covered with short grass.
Assam Valley.-A Division in Eastern Bengal and Assam, consist-
ing of the valley of the Brahmaputra between 25 28' and 27 52' N.
and 89 42' and 96 5' E., shut in between the Himalayas on the
north and the Assam Range on the south. The head-quarters of the
Commissioner are at GAUHATI TOWN. The population of the Division
at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 1,884,046, (188i) 2,252,003,
(I89I) 2,476,481, and (I90I) 2,619,077. The slow rate of increase
during the last decade is due to the exceptional unhealthiness that pre-
vailed in the central portion of the valley. The total area is 24,605
square miles, and the density of population Io6 persons per square
mile, which is rather above that of Assam as a whole. In 1901
Hindus numbered 72 per cent. of the population, animistic tribes i8 per
cent., and Musalmans Io per cent. Other religions included Jains
(I,600), Buddhists (7,940), and Christians (12,526), of whom 11,151
were natives. The Division contains six Districts, as shown below:-


suarea opulation, Land revenue and
in square Populatio cesses (903-4), in
miles. 901- thousands of rupees.
GoalpSra . 3,96r 462,052 1,8o
Kamrtlp 3,858 5 89,187 13,51
Darrang 3,418 337,313 7,82
Nowgong . . . 3,843 26I,I60 5,10
Sibsagar . 4,996 597,969 I5,63
Lakhimpur 4,529 371,396 6,49
Total 24,605 2,619,077 50,35



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