The greater part of the Division consists of a level plain, lying on
both sides of the Brahmaputra. In the centre is a tract of hilly country
known as the MiKiR HILLS, which is cut off from the main mass of the
Assam Range by the valleys of the Dhansiri and the Langpher. The
Division contains Io towns, rather more than half the total number in
Assam, and 8,8o0 villages.
The largest towns are Gauhati (II,66I) and DIBRUGARH (11,227).
The chief centres of trade are GOALPARA, BARPETA, Gauhati, TEZPUR,
and Dibrugarh. The Assamese have, however, no commercial aptitude;
and the fact that tea is the principal industry of the Division prevents
the formation of business centres, each large garden serving as a nucleus
for local trade. KAMAKHYA and HAJo in Kamruip, and the pool of
BRAHMAKUND at the eastern end of the valley, are places of pilgrimage
to which devout Hindus come from all parts of India. Gauhati is
locally identified with a town mentioned in the Mahabharata, and
Tezpur possesses interesting archaeological remains. SIBSAGAR and
NAZIRA were the capitals of the Ahom kingdom.
Assaye.-Village in the Bhokardan taluk of Aurangabad District,
Hyderabad State, situated in 20° 15' N. and 75° 54' E. Population
(I901), 302. It is famous for the battle fought in I803, when Sir
Arthur Wellesley with only 4,500 men defeated the Marathas, who
numbered 50,000. The battle-field is best visited from Sillod, which
is 11 miles north-west of the village.
Assia.-Range of hills in the Jajpur subdivision of Cuttack District,
Bengal, lying between 20° 35' and 20° 41' N. and 86° 14' and 86° 17' E.,
and containing interesting Buddhist, Muhammadan, and Hindu remains.
The principal hills are ALAMIGIR, UDAYAGIRI, Baradihi, NALTIGIRI, and
the outlying peak of Amravati or CHATIA.
Atagada.-Zamindari estate in Ganjam District, Madras. See
KALLIKOTA AND ATAGADA.
Atak.--District, tahsil, and town in the Punjab. See ATTOCK.
Atari.-Village in the Kabirwala tahsil of Multan District, Punjab,
situated in 30° 26' N. and 72° i' E., 20 miles south-west of Talamba. It
is at present an insignificant hamlet, but contains a ruined fortress,
once evidently of great strength, and is identified by Cunningham with
the city of the Brahmans, the third city taken by Alexander in his inva-
sion of India. 'Ihe citadel is 750 feet square and 35 feet high, surrounded
by a ditch now almost undistinguishable, and having a central tower
50 feet in height. On two sides stretch the remains of an ancient town,
forming a massive mound covered with huge bricks, whose size attests
their great antiquity. No tradition exists as to the origin or history of
these remains, and the name of the old city is unknown. The adjacent
village of Atari is quite modern.
Athgarh.-One of the Tributary States of Orissa, Bengal, lying