ranges of the Tenandamalai and Kalrayans on the north and the
Kollaimalais and Pachaimalais on the south. The valley irrigated
by these rivers is a rich tract of country, and the luxuriant groves of
areca palms are a striking feature of the river banks. The population
in 901o was 199,475, compared with 183,209 in 189g. There are
173 villages, and only one town, ATUR (population, 9,673), the head-
quarters. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 3,17,000.
Atur Town.-Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in
Salem District, Madras, situated in 11 35' N. and 780 37' E., on the
river Vasishtanadi, about 3 miles from the foot of the Kalrayan Hills.
Population (I901), 9,673. North of the town stands the old fort,
where the famous eighteenth-century chieftain Ghetti Mudaliyar is
said to have lived in royal state, and where subsequently British troops
were in garrison. .As commanding the pass from Salem to Tyaga Drug,
this post was of importance in the wars with Haidar Ali. It was
captured by the British in 1768, after the surrender of Salem; and
during the war with Tipu was again occupied by British troops. Indigo
is manufactured, and the place is also known for the carts made here.
Augar.-British cantonment in Gwalior State, Central India. See
Aundh.-Native State in the Satara Political Agency, Bombay. See
Auniati.-Village in SibsAgar District, Eastern Bengal and Assam,
situated in 26° 53' N. and 94° 5' E., on the right bank of the Brahma-
putra in the MAJULI island. It contains the principal Vaishnavite sattra,
or priestly college, in Assam, and its Gosain, or head priest, exercises
great influence over the Assamese. The Gosains have always been
distinguished by their loyalty to Government, and render a real service
to the administration by encouraging purity of life and obedience to
the authorities. The sattra is said to have been founded in the
sixteenth century, and is supported by the offerings of its numerous
disciples and by grants of revenue-free land made by the Ahom Rajas
and confirmed by the British Government, which cover in all nearly
22,000 acres. The college consists of a large prayer hall, surrounded
by lines of barracks inhabited by celibate monks, and contains a
printing press. None of the buildings is of masonry.
Aurad.-Former taluk of Bidar District, Hyderabad State. See
Auraiya Tahsil.-Tahsil of Etawah District, United Provinces,
conterminous with the parana of the same name, lying between 26° 22'
and 26° 4I' N. and 79° 3' and 79° 39' E., with an area of 416 square
miles. Population increased from 172,097 in 1891 to 193,333 in I901.
There are 408 villages and two towns: PHAPHUND (population, 7,605)