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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 6, p. 151.


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Ausa.-- Taluk and town of Osmanabad District, Hyderabad
State. See OWSA.
Ava (Burmese, Inwa).-The old capital of Burma, in the Tada-u town-
ship of Sagaing District, Upper Burma, situated in 21 51' N. and 96 E.
The remains of the old city lie at the junction of the Myitnge (Dokta-
waddy) with the Irrawaddy, the city having been built on a triangular
island artificially formed by a channel called the Myittha chaung, which
was dug from the Myitnge to the Irrawaddy. The few houses left
are now scattered about in more than two dozen hamlets, inhabited by
colonies of lacquerers, weavers, and other artisans, some without, some
within, the old walls. The city stood at the north-east corner of the island.
The outer wall is surrounded by a moat, open towards the Myitnge
on the east but closed on the north towards the Irrawaddy. The inner
or palace wall has a second similar moat round it. Of the old palace
nothing is left but one shaky brick tower, very much out of the perpen-
dicular, and not likely long to remain standing. The walls, both outer
and inner, are still very solid and substantial, and give some idea of
the aspect that Ava in its palmy days must have presented; but they
have now been nearly swamped by a sea of undergrowth. The area
between the inner and outer wall is filled with stretches of cultivated
land, scattered hamlets, kyaungs, and enormous jungle-clad masses of
bricks that were once pagodas. Much of this area and all the space
within the inner walls are extremely picturesque. The numberless fine
old tamarind-trees of huge size, the level green swards, the profuse
vegetation, half hiding the thatched hamlets, the massive old walls and
ruined shrines, the cleared vistas, make up a scene which suggests a
park rather than the site of an old capital. The view across the river
to Sagaing, up stream to Mandalay, and eastwards over the Amarapura
plains to the Shan Hills is unequalled on the Irrawaddy.
The principal pagodas are the Lawkamanaung, the Yatanamanaung,
the Zinamanaung, the Tuthamanaung, and the Ngamanaung, built
by king Sanemintayagyi in the year 306 B.E. (A.D. 944); and the
Shwezigon, built by king Mingyizwa Sawke in the year 529 B. E. ( 167).
Founded by king Thadominpaya in the middle of the fourteenth
century, after the final collapse of the Pagan dynasty, Ava was for
many years the capital of one of the kingdoms that struggled during
the middle ages for the mastery in Burma. During the fourteenth
and fifteenth centuries the king of Ava was constantly either invading
the territory of the Talaings or resisting Peguan attacks on his own
kingdom; and more than once during that period Ava saw Shan kings
reigning within her gates, and Chinese armies encamped before her
walls.' In the sixteenth century the Toungoo dynasty rose to power,
and in 1554 Bayin Naung, king of Toungoo, laid siege to and took
the Burmese capital. The fortunes of the town were at a low ebb



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