and finally to Sindhia. The famous caves, which lie about 4 miles
west of the village, are of considerable archaeological interest. As
usual, they are locally known as the Panch Pandu, the five Pandava
brothers being supposed to have inhabited them. The caves are exca-
vated in the face of a sandstone hill 850 feet above the sea. Owing to
the disintegration of a belt of clay stone superimposed on the sandstone,
the roofs of most of the caves have been destroyed. All of the caves,
which number eight or nine, are viharas or monasteries, there being
apparently no chaitya hall or Buddhist church attached to them. In
age they rank before the latest at Ajanta, and may be assigned to the
sixth or seventh century A. D. In a room attached to the largest cave
there existed formerly a series of frescoes equalling those at Ajanta.
Unfortunately, they were never copied and have now vanished.
Fergusson, remarking on the appearance of the figures depicted, con
siders that they represented people of Central Asia and not of India.
[Transactions of the Bombay Literary Society, vol. ii; Journal of
Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. v ; and Indian and
Eastern Architecture, pp. 159, 446.]
Baghal.-One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying between 31º 5'
and 31º 19' N. and 76º 5 2' and 7 7º 5' E., with an area of 124 square
miles. Population ( 1901 ), 2 6, 7 20 . The capital of the State is Arki,
20 miles north-west of Simla. The Ranas of Baghal claimed descent
from the Ponwar Ragas of Rajputana. Little is known of the early
history of the State, but between 1803 and 1815 it was overrun by the
Gurkhas. After their expulsion the British Government reinstated the
Rana. In 18 7 5 the chief, Kishan Singh, was rewarded with the title of
Raja for his services. The present Raja, Bikram Singh, succeeded in
1904 at the age of twelve. During his minority the administration is
conducted by a council, consisting of the brother of the late Raja and
an official deputed by Government. The revenue is Rs. 50,000, out of
which a tribute of Rs. 3, 600 is paid.
Baghat.-One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying between
30º 50' and 30º 58' N. and 77º 2' and ; 77º 12' E., with an area of
36 square miles. Population (1901), 9,490. The Ranas of Baghat
claim descent from a Rajput family of Dharanagri in the Deccan. In
1805 the Rana, being in alliance with the Bilaspur State, was allowed
to retain his territory by the Gurkhas, but in 1815 five-eighths of it was
confiscated and made over to Patiala. In 1839 the State lapsed in
default of a direct heir ; but in 1842 it was restored to a brother of the
late Rana, only to escheat again in 1 849. in 1860, however, it was
once more restored, and Rana Dalip Singh, C.I. E., succeeded in 1862.
He has proved himself a public-spirited chief. Baghat has a revenue
of Rs. 30,000. The sites for the cantonments of Kasauli and Solon
were acquired from the State in 1 842 and 1863, the tribute being reduced