BALLABGARtI T4 ASIL
expulsion of his grandson, Mahmud Shah. For a time it was ruled by
an Uzbeg chief who owned a nominal suzerainty to Bokhara; but in
I840, disputes having arisen between the Amir of Bokhara and his
vassal, the former crossed the Oxus, captured and destroyed the city of
Balkh, and deported the majority of the inhabitants. In I850 Balkh
was again united to Afghanistan.
There is little of antiquarian interest to be seen at the present
day in the ruins of this once great city, probably one of the oldest
capitals in Asia, but now a small and insignificant Tajik village. The
inner walls, which are still standing, enclose an area of about three
square miles. The only buildings of any importance that yet retain
any form or shape are the zidrat and madrasa of Khwaja Abfinasar
Parsai, and it is doubtful whether these were built in the thirteenth or
the sixteenth century. According to local tradition, Balkh has been
destroyed twenty-four times; it certainly never fully recovered its de-
struction by Chingiz Khan, attended by the wholesale massacre of the
inhabitants, though it was not until the capture of the city by the Amir
of Bokhara (I840) that it was finally abandoned. No trace has been
discovered of the ancient splendours of Bactra; and the still visible
remains, which are scattered over a circuit of 20 miles, consist mainly
of mosques and tombs of sun-dried bricks, and show nothing of even
early Muhammadan date. The old Arab historians record a heathen
temple at Balkh, called by them Naobihdr, which Sir Henry Rawlinson
points out to have been certainly a Buddhist monastery (nawa vihdra).
The name Naobihar still attaches to a village on one of the Balkh
canals, thus preserving through many centuries the memory of the
ancient Indian religion.
Balkonda.-Jd.gr town in the Armur taluk of Nizamabad District,
Hyderabad State, situated in 18° 53' N. and 78° 2i' E., six miles north-
east of Armur town, and 24 miles from the Indur station on the
Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway. Population (1901), 5,118. The
town is surrounded by an old ruined wall, still having a few gates and
posterns. It contains one temple, four mosques, one of the latter being
built of stone, several tombs and shrines, and an idgah used for prayers
on Musalman holidays. A fort stands near a large tank in the vicinity
of the town, on the Hyderabad-Nagpur road, and small watch-towers
are perched on the topmost crags of the hills in the neighbourhood.
A post office and a police station are located here, besides the jdgir
tahsil office, and a civil and criminal court.
Ballabgarh Tahsil.-Southern lahsil of Delhi District, Punjab,
lying between 28° 12' and 28° 36' N. and 77° 7' and 77° 31' E., with an
area of 395 square miles. It lies to the west of the river Jumnaj which
separates it from the Bulandshahr District of the United Provinces.
The population in 1901 was 126,693, compared with II9,652 in 1891.