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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 6, p. 344.

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country. The total area is 1,988 square miles, and the capital is
DEOGARH. The only important river is the Brahmani, which flows
through a small strip on the eastern border. Wild elephants are found
in the State. The ruling family are Gangabansi Rajputs. They have
a genealogy dating back to A.D. 1602 ; and according to their traditions
the first Raja of Bamra belonged to the royal family of Patna State, and
was stolen from his home and made king of Bamra by the Bhuiyas and
Khonds. The late Raja, Sir Sfdhal Deo, K.C.I.E., was a gentleman of
advanced education and enlightened views who did much to improve
his State. He died in 1903 and was succeeded by his son, Raja Tri-
bhuvan Deo. The relations of the State with Government are controlled
by a Political Agent subordinate to the Commissioner of Orissa. The
population in 19go numbered 123,378 persons, showing an increase
since 1891 of I8 per cent. About 77 per cent. of the population speak
Oriya and 18 per cent. the Oraon and Mundari dialects. As is shown
by the language, the population is mainly Oriya, Chasas, Kisans,
Gahras, and Gandas being the most important castes numerically.
There are also a number of Gonds and Bhuiyas.
The soil is light and sandy, the best quality being found under the
hills. The area cultivated in 1905 was 227 square miles, or xI per
cent. of the total, having largely increased during the last decade. The
principal crops are rice, til, and castor, about 140 square miles being
always under rice. There are 974 irrigation tanks. The State forests
cover 1,734 square miles, and contain valuable sal timber (Shorea
robusta), which has only been exploited within recent years. Saw-mills
have been established at Sirid, 20 miles from Deogarh, at which about
50,000 sleepers are at present annually produced for export. Lac, silk
cocoons, catechu, and myrabolams are other forest products. The State
also contains considerable deposits of iron ore and mica. At Balam,
io miles from Deogarh, the late chief established a factory with an
irrigation pump, and also flour-mills, sugar-cane-mills, and an oil-mill
worked by two portable engines. There are 23 miles of metalled and
i83 miles of unmetalled roads, maintained from the State funds under
the direct supervision of the chief. The Bengal-Nagpur Railway passes
through the north-eastern corner of the State with two stations-Bamra
Road and Garpos-within its borders.
The revenue from all sources amounted in r904 to Rs. I,54,000, the
principal items being land revenue, Rs. 68,ooo; forests, Rs. I6,ooo000;
and excise, Rs. Io,ooo. The taxation of land is about o1 annas per
cultivated acre. A regular assessment has been made on the basis of
soil classification. The expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 1,48,000, the
principal items being the private expenses of the chief's family,
Rs. 50,000; general administration, Rs. 8,200; police, Rs. 12,000; and
education and medical, Rs. 5,000 each. Rs. 1,500 is paid as tribute to

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