chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 7,200. The town
possesses a vernacular middle school maintained by the municipality
and a Government dispensary.
BangThal.-Canton of the Outer Himalayas in Kangra District,
Punjab, lying between 32° 15' and 32° 29' N. and 76° 49' and
760 55' E., and separating Kangra proper from the outlying sub-
division of Kulu. The Dhaola Dhar divides the canton into two main
valleys, the northern of which is called Bard or Greater Bangahal, and
the southern Chhota or Lesser Bangahal. The former, with an area of
290 square miles, contains but a single village, with a few Kanet
families, 8,500 feet above sea-level. The Ravi river has its source in
this valley, and is a considerable stream before it issues into the State
of Chamba, the mountains rising steeply from its banks into peaks
of I7,000 and even 20,000 feet, covered with glaciers and perpetual
snow. The lower ravines contain much pine forest, and the upper
slopes afford grazing for large flocks. Chhota Bangahal is again
divided by a range, Io,ooo feet in height, into two glens. In the
eastern, which contains eighteen scattered hamlets of Kanets and
Daghis, rises the Ul river; and the western, known as Bir Bangahal,
resembles the higher valleys of Kangra proper.
Bangalore District.--District in the south-east of Mysore State,
lying between I2° 15' and I3° 30' N. and 77° 4' and 77° 59' E., with
an area of 3,092 square miles. It is bounded north and east by Kolar
and the Salem District of Madras; west by Tumkir and Mysore
Districts; south by the Coimbatore District of Madras.
The main portion of the District consists of the valley of the
Arkavati, with the Cauvery flowing at the southern base. The east
includes the upper basin of the Ponnaiyar, the south-
west a part of the basin of the Shimsha. The Physical
central, southern, and eastern parts are mostly open
and undulating. Westward the country is broken and rugged, with
a succession of hills, the eastern watershed of the Cauvery rising in
places to lofty mountain peaks, such as Sivaganga (4,559 feet) and
Savandurga (4,024 feet). The low-lying lands contain series of tanks;
the uplands are often bare or covered with scrub jungle. The hills
in the south, as well as Savandurga, are surrounded with forest.
The prevailing rock is gneiss, disrupted by trap seams, dikes, and
large outcrops, and also by porphyritic and fine-grained granite rocks,
rock crystal, amethystic smoky and milky quartz. Adularia, pink
felspar, chert, corundum, chalcedony, mica, and hornblende are found.
Hematitic iron ore is abundant. Nodular limestone is found in the
valleys, and near Kankanhalli is a formation of industrial lime. Kaolin-
itic clays occur, and laterite is found as a flat capping, resting on the
denuded surface of gneiss.