The hilly parts to the west contain many plants of the Malnad, but
of smaller size, such as Sterculia, Erythrina, &c. But the greater part
of the vegetation of the District is made up of plants such as Alangizum
Lamarckii, Heptap/eurum venulosum, Cassias, Bassias, Acacias,
Ficus, Bauhinias, Jfangifera, Pongamia, &c. Casuarina equisetifolia
is a common exotic, and Lantana Camara is spreading in rank
The climate of Bangalore city is noted for its salubrity, and the
tracts north and east are healthy: but the taluks traversed by the
western range of hills are subject to malarious fever. The annual
rainfall at Bangalore averages 35 inches. The southern td/uks get
more, and Nelamangala less. The wettest months are generally
September and October. The average mean temperature and diurnal
range at Bangalore are: in January, 69° and 23°; in May, 80° and 22';
in July, 74° and 16°; in November, 7I° and 17°.
Till I004 the District was a part of the Ganga kingdom of Ganga-
vadi. In the seventh century Mankunda (in the Channapatna taluk)
was the royal residence, and in the eighth century
History. Manyapura (Manne, in the Nelamangala Idluk).
Traces also exist of the Pallavas in the east, and of the Rdshtra-
kutras in the north. The Cholas next held the District until III6,
giving it the name of Vikramachola-mandala. The Hoysalas followed
until 1336, when the Vijayanagar kingdom was established.
Early in the next century certain Morasu Wokkaligas from the east
formed states tributary to Vijayanagar, those in this District
being YELAHANKA, DEVANHALLI, and DOD-BALLAPUR. HOSKOTE
belonged to a chief in Kolar District. Kempe Gauda, a Yelahanka
chief, founded Bangalore in r-537, and his son acquired MAGADI
and SAVANDURGA. Meanwhile, under the name of the Sivasamudram'
country, much of the District seems to have been subject to the chief
of Ummattur (Mysore District), till he was put down by the Vijaya-
nagar king in I5Io. After the fall of Vijayanagar in I565, Jagadeva
Raya, the chief of Baramahal (Salem District), repelled the Musulman
atttack on Penukonda in 1577, and was rewarded with territory in
Mysore, his capital being fixed at Channapatna. In I644 the District
came under the rule of Bijapur, and was given, with other neighbouring
tracts, as a jdgir to Shahji, father of the Maratha leader Sivaji. In
I687 the Mughals overran the country to the north, and formed the
province of SIRA (Tumkur District). At this time Bangalore was sold
to the Mysore Rajas, who by the end of the seventeenth century had
gained possession of the whole District, except Hoskote and Dod-
Balllpur, which were acquired soon after.
1 The name is that of the island at the Falls of the Cauvery, where the chief had
his fortress and the temple of his family god.