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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 6, p. 372.

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that river and the Jurreru, which are the chief streams. The Jurreru
rises in the Erramalas, flows past Banganapalle town, and enters the
Kunderu after a course of 45 miles. A small stream called the Paleru
crosses the southern limb of the territory. The Jurreru alone, which
is perennial, is used for irrigation.
The geology of Banganapalle is simple. The lowest rocks are of the
Cuddapah formation, and occupy the bottom of the Jurreru valley
between Banganapalle town westward and Pasupula. They consist
chiefly of argillites, with intercalated trap flows of the Cheyyar group.
Resting on them is a strip of conglomerate, west of the town, which
has been mined for diamonds for many generations. There are no
forests yielding revenue.
The larger game include leopard, hyena, wolf, antelope, and wild
hog; and the feathered game, partridge, quail, and jungle-fowl. The
streams abound in fish of inferior kinds.
The climate is hot, but healthier than the surrounding portions of
Kurnool District. November, December, and January are pleasantly
cool and dry; February, March, April, and May are increasingly hot;
in June, July, August, and September the south-west monsoon brings
heavy rain and high winds. The annual rainfall averages about
30 inches. Fever is endemic, but is nowhere of a severe type.
The oldest extant title-deed of the family, which is dated in 1761,
records the fact that the Nizam in that year appointed one Husain All
Khan as Kiladar (commandant) and Faujdar (magis-
iso trate) of Banganapalle. This document refers to the
removal of one Muhammad Beg Khan, apparently from the post given
to Husain All Khan; but the nature of that transaction is not indicated.
It would seem, however, from the manuscript records of the family
that Muhammad Beg Khan was the great-grandfather of Husain Ali
Khan, and the adopted son of a person of the same name appointed
Kiladar of Banganapalle by the Sultan of Bijapur in the last half of
the seventeenth century. A document still preserved at Banganapalle
bears the seal of Muhammad Beg Khan and the date r13I Hijra
(A.D. 17I8-9).
Within a few years the country fell under the dominion of Mysore.
A translation of a letter of confirmation, dated 1783, at the beginning
of Tipu's reign, is preserved in the archives of the Madras Government.
In this letter Tipu refers to the assiduity of the recently deceased
Husain Ali Khan in the Sarkar affairs, and confers the jagir of Ban-
ganapalle on his son Ghulam All Khan. As a matter of fact, it would
appear that, notwithstanding this grant, Tipu at once resumed thejdgir,
and expelled Ghullm All Khan. Letters written by Tipu in the same
year summon Ghulam All Khan to his presence and refuse to accept
his excuses for not coming. Another, dated I790, to the Kiladar of

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