BAR.4 TO WN4
through the soft soil of the Peshawar valley to a considerable depth
and now runs far below the level of the surrounding country, but from
time immemorial it has been used for irrigation on both banks. The
supply of water is, however, small, not exceeding 158 cubic feet per
second as a rule, though after rain in the Tirah hills it is greatly
increased, and the stream then brings down a reddish silt which is
extremely fertilizing. In 1898 a weir was constructed near the Afridi
village of Ilm Gudr at a cost of Rs. 20,000. The Bara canal, taking
off here on the north bank, has two branches named after the tribes
whose lands they command: the Khalil or Sangu, which cost
Rs. 23,500; and the Mohmand or Shaikhan, which cost Rs. 20,600.
These branches were so designed as not to interfere with the ancient
watercourses, over which they were carried by means of aqueducts.
Both branches run through tunnels in conglomerate rock immediately
above the weir, the Sangu tunnel being I,6oo feet in length and the
Shaikhan 710 feet. The head-works are protected by a blockhouse.
The canal is managed by the D)eputy-Commissioner under the Peshawar
Canal Regulation of I898. It irrigated 57 square miles in 1903-4.
Bara Tahsil.-The westernmost of the three trans-Jumna tahsils
in Allahabad District, United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana
of the same name, lying between 25° 2' and 25° 22' N. and 8I° 31'
and 81° 49' E., with an area of 253 square miles. Population fell
from 63,816 in 189I to 55,503 in 1901. There are 237 villages, but
no town. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. I,24,000,
and for cesses Rs. 20,000; but the revenue demand has since been
reduced to Rs. 1,02,000, and in future will be liable to revision every
five years. The density of population, 2I9 persons per square mile,
is the lowest in the District. This tahsil presents the characteristic
features of BU.NDELKHAND-low ranges of hills dipping in plains of
mar or black soil, and stretches of barren stony ground. Rice is
largely grown in the best mar soil. Kisdri ddl (Lathyrus sativus)
is also common, and the effects of its consumption are seen in the
number of cripples in every village. In 1903-4 the area under cultiva-
tion was 122 square miles, of which only 2 were irrigated.
Bara Town.-Town in the Zamania tahsil of Ghazipur District,
United Provinces, situated in 250 31' N. and 83° 52' E., on the Ganges,
i8 miles south-east of Ghazipur town. Population (1901), 5,260.
Bara is a long, narrow, straggling town at the confluence of the
Karamnasa with the Ganges. Close by, on the banks of the smaller
river, was fought the battle, usually known as Chausa Ghat, between
Humayun and Sher Shah in 1539, which ended in the defeat and
flight of the former. There are some old Hindu temples and a spacious
idgdh. Bara has no trade; it contains two schools with about
77 pupils, of whom 22 are girls.
VOL. VI. E c