2 BAREILL Y DIVISION
generally is a fertile tract, especially noted for the production of sugar-
cane. There are 65 towns and I ,403 villages. The largest towns are
BAREILLY (I31,208, with cantonments), SHAHJAHANPUR (76,458, with
cantonments), MORXDABAD (75,128), AMROHA (40,077), SAMBHAL
(39,7I5), BUDAUN (39,031), PILIBHIT (33,490), CHANDAUSI (25,71I),
and NAGINA (21,412). The chief places of commercial importance are
Bareilly, Shahjahanpur, Mor.dibad, Pilibhit, Chandausi, and TILHAR.
Sugar and grain are dealt with also in many smaller places. Although
ancient sites occur in many parts of the Division, RAMNAGAR is the
only one which has been even partially explored. BUDAUN and
SAMBHAL were early seats of Muhammadan governors; and BAREILLY,
PiLIBHIT, RAMPUR, and AONLA were important centres during the
Rohilla rule in the eighteenth century. See ROHILKHAND.
Bareilly District (Bareli).-District in the Bareilly or Rohilkhand
Division, United Provinces, lying between 28° i' and 28° 54′ N.
and 78° 58′ and 79° 47′ E., with an area of 1,580 square miles.
It is bounded on the north by Naini Tal; on the east by Pilibhit and
ShahjahAnpur; on the south by Shahjahanpur and Budaun; and on
the west by Budaun and the State of Rampur. The District of Bareilly,
though lying not far from the outer ranges of the
Physical Himalayas, is a gently sloping plain, with no greater
variety of surface than is caused by the shifting
channels of its numerous streams. Water lies almost everywhere near
the surface, giving it a verdure that recalls the rice-fields of Bengal.
The most prominent physical feature is the RAMGANGA River, which
traverses the south-western portion. Its channel has a well-defined
bank at first on the south, and later on the north; but except where
the stream is thus confined, the khddar or lowland merges imper-
ceptibly into the upland, and the river varies its course capriciously
through a valley 4 or 5 miles wide, occasionally wandering to a still
greater distance. North of the Ramganga are numerous streams
running south to meet that river. The chief of these (from west to
east) are the Dojora, which receives the Kichha or West Bahgul, the
Deoranian, the Nakatia, and the East Bahgul, which receives the
Pangaili. The Deoha forms the eastern boundary for some distance.
The gentle slope of the country makes it possible to use these rivers for
irrigation in the upper part of their courses. Lower down, and more
especially in the east of the District, they flow below the general level
and are divided by elevated watersheds of sandy plains.
The District exposes nothing but alluvium, in which even kankar, or
calcareous limestone, is scarce.
The flora resembles that of the Gangetic plain generally. In the
north a few forest trees are found, the seima or cotton-tree (Bombax
nmalabaricum) towering above all others. The rest of the District is