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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 31.

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unhealthy, and the rsti mahals of Navsari, Palsana, Kamrej, and
Gandevi, where the climate is good. The rani mahals are at all times
insalubrious. In the rasti maahals, the healthiest tracts during the hot
season are Navsari, Gandevi, and Bilimora. Here the close proximity
of the sea maintains a moist and temperate climate; and though the
early part of the hot season is somewhat heavy and close, the regular
sea-breezes, which set in towards the end of April, produce a most
agreeable change. The maximum temperature during the hot season
is IoI° and the minimum 74°. In the rainy season the corresponding
figures are 91° and 70°, and in the cold season 87° and 60°. In the
Amreli print the climate, except in the Dhari and Kodinar talukas,
which are malarious and enervating, may be described as dry and
salubrious. The hot season, which lasts from March to June, has an
average maximum of 980 and a minimum of 84°. During this portion
of the year fresh and cool breezes nearly always set in at evening. In
the rainy season the maximum is 88° and the minimum 77°, while in
the cold season the corresponding figures are 88° and 60°.
In i88i it was calculated, probably on very imperfect data, that the
average rainfall of the State amounted to 58 inches in Navsari, 37'3 in
Baroda, 32 in Kadi, and 21I4 in Amreli. The similar averages arrived
at for the decades I882-1891 and I892-1901 give the following
1882-91. 1892-1901.
Inches. Inches.
Navsari . 3.9 51.9
Baroda 3 7.9 3S.
Kadi 30.1 27.4
Amreli . . 22.3 21.6
It will thus be noticed that, though the Southern Gujarat divisions are
much more favoured than the northern ones, in the Navsari division
rainfall appears to be steadily diminishing, and the same remark holds
good with reference to Kadi.
The history of the Baroda State as such dates only from the break-up
of the Mughal empire. For previous events see History
The first Maratha invasion of Gujarat took place in r705. A few
years later, in I712, a Maratha leader, Khande Rao Dabhbde by name,
became so powerful that he was able to exact a fourth of the effects of
all travellers who did not purchase his passport. He afterwards took
part in various battles with the Muhammadan viceroys, and finally
returned to Satara, where he was created Senapati or commander-in-
chief in I716. Four years later the emperor Muhammad Shah granted
the Marathas the right to levy ch/auth (a quarter of the revenues) in

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