00oo BASI1 DISTRICT
modified in the past by an admixture of the types found in the northern
tracts of the Hyderabad State, and more lately, since recent years of
scarcity and famine, by the importation of cattle of the Nimari, Shola-
puri, and Labbani breeds. Buffaloes are chiefly of the Dakhani breed.
The local breeds of ponies, sheep, and goats are inferior, and the
breeders have neither the knowledge nor the means necessary to their
Only 6 square miles of the cultivated land were irrigated in 1903-4,
consisting almost entirely of garden crops, watered from wells.
Of the forest land, 266 square miles are reserved for the production
of timber and fuel, 19 square miles are ramna land, and 436 square
miles are grazing land. The forests producing timber
are situated on the northern slopes of the Balaghat,
in the Basim taluk, on the hills north of the Pus river between the
Mangrul and Pusad tdluks, on the hills forming the watershed between
the Pus and Penganga rivers, and in the south-eastern corner of the
Pusad taduk in the loop of the Penganga. All these forests contain teak,
which varies in size and quality in different localities, the best being
found in the Kinwat Reserve in the loop of the Penganga. Tiwas
(Ougeinia dalbergioides) is also common in this Reserve, but rarer else-
where. Ain (Termninalia lomentosa), dhaura (Anogeissus latifolia), lendia
(Lagerstroemia parviflora), and dhdman (Grezwi tiliaefolia) are also
common and useful trees. The following trees are common in both
forest and cultivated land: babul (Acacia arabica), hiwar (Acacia
leucophloea), mahua (Bassia latifolia), gular (Ficus giomerata), chinch
or imli (Tamarindus indica), and ber (Zizyphus fujuba). The mango
is cultivated, but does not grow wild in the forests; bamboos are rare,
and, where found, inferior.
The iron ore found in the Pusad hills, which has already been
mentioned, seems to be the only mineral product of the District, and
it is very doubtful whether it is of economic value.
There are no important manufactures. The principal industry is the
preparation of cotton for the market. The District
communications contained I6 ginning factories and 2 cotton-presses,
all worked by steam.
The chief export is cotton, which is sent by road to Akola and thence
by rail to Bombay. Some of the cotton from the south of the Pusad
taluk finds its way to the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway. Oil-
seeds and grain and pulse are also exported. The principal imports
are grain and pulse, sugar, salt, and oils, which come chiefly from
Akola, having been brought thither by rail. Most of the internal trade
is effected through the agency of the weekly markets atpargana towns.
Basim has a cotton market. The traders are chiefly Marwaris and