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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 145.


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BELGA UM DISTRICT I45
in the twelfth century it was of such antiquity as to be styled the mother
of cities, the capital of ancient cities, the immemorial capital, and
is said to derive its name from the giant Bali. On account of its
religious merit it was called the Dakshina Kedara, and also had the
name Kamatha. Under the Chalukyas and Kalachuris it was the capital
of the Banavasi 'twelve thousand' province. It contained five maths,
with temples dedicated to Vishnu, Siva, Brahma, Jina, and Buddha, and
three puras, besides seven Brahmapuris. At the Kodiya math of the
Kedaresvara temple medicine and food were dispensed to all comers.
Of eighty-four inscriptions in the place most are of the eleventh and
twelfth centuries. Its prosperity continued under the Hoysalas and
Seunas, but the city no doubt fell a prey to the Muhammadan invaders
of the fourteenth century who overthrew the Hoysala power. The
ruined temples are rich with carving equal to any in Mysore.
Belgaum District.-District in the Southern Division of the Bom-
bay Presidency, lying between 15° 22′ and 16° 58′ N. and 74° 2′ and
75° 25′ E., with an area of 4,649 square miles. It is bounded on the
north by the States of Miraj and Jath; on the north-east by Bijapur
District; on the east by the States of Jamkhandi, Mudhol, Kolhapur, and
Rlmdurg; on the south and south-west by the Districts of Dharwar and
North Kanara, the State of Kolhapur, and the Portuguese territory of
Goa; and on the west by the States of Savantvadi and Kolhapur. The
lands of the District are greatly interlaced with those of the neighbouring
Native States, and within the District are large tracts of Native territory.
The country forms a large plain, studded with solitary peaks and
broken here and there by low ranges of hills. Many of the peaks are
crowned by small but well-built forts. The lower
hills are generally covered with brushwood, but in Pysical
some cases their sides are carefully cultivated almost
to the very summits. The most elevated portion of the District lies to
the west and south along the line of the Sahyadri Hills or Western Ghats.
The surface of the plain slopes with an almost imperceptible fall
eastwards to the borders of Bijapur. On the north and east the District
is open and well cultivated, but to the south it is intersected by spurs of
the Ghats, thickly covered in some places with forest. Except near the
Western Ghats, and in other places where broken by lines of low hills,
the country is almost a dead level; but especially in the south,
and along the banks of the large rivers, the surface is pleasantly varied
by trees, solitary and in groups. From March to June the fields
are bare; and but for the presence of the mango, tamarind, jack, and
other trees, reared for their fruit, the aspect of the country would
be desolate in the extreme.
The principal rivers are the Kistna, here properly called the Krishna,
flowing through the north, the Ghatprabha, flowing through the centre,
VOL. VII. L



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