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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 146.

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and the Malprabha, through the south of the District. From their
sources among the spurs of the Western Ghats, these rivers pass
eastwards through the plain of Belgaum on their way to the Bay of
Bengal. They are bordered by deeply cut banks, over which they
seldom flow. None is serviceable for purposes of navigation. In the
west the rivers and wells yield a sufficient supply of good water; but
towards the east the wells become brackish, and the water-bearing strata
lie far below the surface. Except the Kistna, which at all times main-
tains a considerable flow of water, the rivers sink into insignificant
streams during the hot season, and the supply of water falls short of
the wants of the people.
In the south of the District is a narrow strip of Archaean gneissic rock,
including some hematite schists of the auriferous Dharwar series. In
the centre quartzite and limestone of the Kaladgi (Cuddapah) group
are found partly overlaid by two great bands of basalt belonging to
the Deccan trap system, and in the north and west basalt and laterite
occur. Several of the river valleys contain ancient alluvial deposits of
upper pliocene or pleistocene age, consisting of clay with partings and
thin beds of impure grits and sandstones. In the banks of a stream
that flows into the Ghatprabha at Chikdauli, 3 miles north-east of
Gokak, were found some remarkable fossil remains of mammalia,
including an extinct form of rhinoceros .
Of the typical trees of the District, mdtai (Terrmina/i a tomnltosa),
jambul (Ezugenia Jambolana), ndna, harda, sisva, and hasan (Pterocarpus
Marsupium) yield valuable timber; kdrvi (Slrobilanthzs Grahamianus)
and small bamboos are used for fencing and roofing, and kumba (Careya
arborea) is in demand for the manufacture of field tools. The harda
and hela (Termrinalia belerica) furnish myrabolams, and the shemba
(Acacia concinna) supplies the ritha or soap-nut which is used in cleaning
clothes. The chief fruit trees are the mango, jack, custard-apple,
bullock's-heart, cashew-nut, jiimbul, bael, wood-apple, pummelo, sweet
lime, citron, lime, orange, kokam, azla, bor, b uran, t uti, agasti, horse-
radish tree, guava, pomegranate, papai, karanda, fig, mulberry, plantain,
and pineapple. Among creepers the most noticeable are several species
of convolvulus; and a large number of English flowers have been
grown from seeds and cuttings.
Antelope are found in the north and east. Sinmbar, deer, wild hog,
and hyenas are not uncommon in the waste and forest lands. Of the
larger beasts of prey, leopards are pretty generally distributed, but
tigers are met with only in the south and south-west. Of game-birds
there are peafowl, partridge, quail, duck, snipe, teal, kalam, and
occasionally bustard.
' R. B. Foote, Memoirs, Geolrgcical .S'oe 'v of Ifdia, vol. xii, pt. i; and
Palaeontologia lidica, SerieX, N ',I. i. :.t. i.

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