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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 192.

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Agent for the payment of certain pensions; of an Inspector of Schools,
and of an Executive Engineer in the Roads and Buildings branch. It
contains three male and three female hospitals, besides a lunatic asylum,
a leper asylum, a poorhouse, and branches of the Church Missionary,
London Missionary, Baptist, and Wesleyan Societies. Some members of
the ex-royal family of Delhi reside at Benares in a large building called
the Shivala, which was once occupied by Chet Singh.
A municipality was constituted in i868. During the ten years
ending 1901 the income averaged 4.8 lakhs, and the expenditure
5.8 lakhs; the latter, however, included capital expenditure on water-
supply and drainage. In 1903-4, excluding a loan of Ir5 lakhs, the
income was 4-7 lakhs, the chief items being octroi (3 lakhs), water rate
(Rs. 83,000), other taxes (Rs. 34,000), and rents (Rs. 30,000). The
expenditure amounted to 6.4 lakhs, including repayment of loans and
interest (i.r lakhs), water-supply and drainage (capital, 2-2 lakhs, and
maintenance, Rs. 72,000), conservancy (Rs. 70,000), roads and build-
ings (Rs. 28,00o), public safety (Rs. 50,000), and administration and
collection (Rs. 40,000). An excellent system of water-works was con-
structed between 1890 and I892, which has cost upwards of 26 lakhs.
In I903-4 the daily consumption of filtered water amounted to over
I6 gallons per head of population, and there were more than 5,000
house-connexions. Water is pumped from the Ganges and filtered
before use. An elaborate drainage scheme is still under construction,
which is estimated to cost 15 lakhs. It includes a system of sewers,
with house-connexions.
The cantonment is usually garrisoned by British and Native infantry.
The receipts and expenditure of the cantonment fund during the ten
years ending 19oI averaged Rs. 12,500. In I903-4 the income was
Rs. I2,700 and the expenditure Rs. 13,I00.
The wealth of Benares depends largely upon the constant influx of
pilgrims from every part of India, whose presence lends the same
impetus to the local trade as that given to European watering-places by
the season visitors. Some of the pilgrims are Rajas or other persons
of importance, who bring considerable retinues, and become large
benefactors to the various shrines and temples. Hindu princes of
distant States pride themselves upon keeping up a 'town residence'
in holy Kasi. The city thus absorbs a large share of the agricultural
produce of the District, and it also acts as a distributing centre. Its
manufactures include ornamental brass-ware, silk, both plain and
embroidered with gold and silver, jewellery, and lacquered wooden
toys. The brass-ware has a considerable reputation among Europeans
as well as natives. The trade in silk kamkhwab or kincob, woven with
gold and silver, is decreasing as native taste inclines towards European
fabrics. A good deal of German-silver work is now turned out in

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