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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 362.


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362 BERAR
The principal rivers of Berar are the TAPTI, the PURNA, the
WARDHA, and the PENGANGA. The Tapti runs from east to west and
the Pengangi from west to east, each following the general declination
of the range from which it receives its principal affluents. The Wardha
rises in the Satpuras and flows in a southerly direction, receiving the
Penganga at the south-eastern corner of the province. The Purna,
which is a tributary of the Tapti, drains the Payanghat, rising in the
lower slopes of the Gawilgarh hills in Amraoti District, and running
westward through the valley until it leaves the province at the northern-
most corner of the Malkapur tdluk. The Penganga rises in the hills
near Deulgh.t in Buldina District, traverses that District in a south-
easterly direction, and enters the BAsim tdhik near Wakad. From Yeoti
eastwards it forms the southern boundary of Berar till it meets the
WardhL at Jugad. Its prinicpal tributaries are the Pus, Arna, Arn,
Wlgh.ri, Kuin, and Vaidarbha, which rise in the Ballghat and flow to
meet it in a south-easterly direction.
The only lake in Berar is the salt lake of LONAR in Buldana District.
The scenery of the Payanghat is monotonous and uninteresting.
The wide expanse of black cotton soil, slightly undulating, is broken
by few trees except babuls and groves near villages. In the autumn
the crops give it a fresh and green appearance: but after the harvest the
monotonous scene is unrelieved by verdure, shade, or water, and the
landscape is desolate and depressing. The Balaghlt is more varied
and pleasing, though here also the country has a parched and arid
appearance in the hot season. The ground is less level and the country
generally is better wooded. It stretches in parts into downs and dales,
or is broken up into flat-topped hills and deep ravines, while in its
eastern section the country is still more sharply featured by a splitting
up of the main hill range, which has caused that variety of low-lying
plains, high plateaux, fertile bottoms, and rocky wastes found in Wun
District. The scenery of the Melghlt is yet more picturesque, the
most striking features of this tract being the abrupt scarps of trap rock
near the summits of the hills, the densely wooded slopes, and the steep
ravines. The undulating plateaux are rarely of great extent.
'With the exception of the south-eastern corner, comprising a portion
of Wun District, the whole of Berar is covered by the Deccan trap
flows. In the south-eastern corner the trap has been removed by
atmospheric agencies, exposing small patches of the underlying Lameta
beds, and the great Godgvari trough of Gondwlna rocks, which are let
down into very old unfossiliferous Purana strata, are regarded as pre-
Cambrian in age, and are known in other parts of peninsular India as
Vindhyans, Cuddapahs, &c. The Deccan trap is itself covered with
' From a note supplied by Mr. T. H. Holland, Director of the Geological Survey
of India.



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