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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 8, p. 25.


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BHjGALPUR DISTRICT 25
there is a strong admixture of the Koch tribe, the last of the invaders
from the north-east, and in Darjeeling more than half the population
are Nepalese.
The Division contains 14 towns and 18,670 villages; the largest
towns are BHAGALPUR (population, 75,760) and MONGHYR (35,880).
Owing to plague in Monghyr at the time of the Census (March,
1901), the figure represents less than its normal population, and a
second enumeration held four months later disclosed 50,133 inhabitants.
Bhagalpur town has a large export trade in agricultural produce ; and
a considerable traffic also passes through Monghyr, SAIiIBGANJ, and
RnJMAHIiL. JAMALPUR contains the largest railway works in India,
and KATIHAR is an important railway junction where the Eastern
Bengal and the Bengal and North-Western Railway systems meet. The
hill station of DARJEELING is the summer head-quarters of the Bengal
Government and a military cantonment; the Census held at the end of
the cold season of 1901 disclosed a population of 16,924 persons, but
at a special Census taken during the previous rains 23,852 persons were
enumerated. The temples of Baidyanath at DEOGARH in the Santal
Parganas are a great centre of Hindu pilgrimage, and rock sculptures
are found in Bhagalpur District. The most important historical event
of recent: times was the Santal rebellion in 1855, which led to the
formation of the Santal Parganas into a non-regulation District.
Bhdgalpixr District (Bhagalpur, meaning the `city of good luck'
or 'the city of refugees').--Central District of the Division of the
same name, lying between 24 33' and 26 34' N. and 86' 19' and
87 31' E., with an area Of 4,226 square miles. It is bounded on the
north by Nepal ; on the east, north of the Ganges, by the District of
Purnea; on the south and east, south of the Ganges, by the Santal
Parganas ; and on the west by the Districts of Darbhanga and
Monghyr.
The District is divided into two nearly equal parts by the Ganges.
The northern half forms a continuation of the great alluvial plain of
Tirhut, being intersected by many rivers which are
connected with each other by numerous dhdrs or physical
aspects.
watercourses. The southern and eastern portions of
this tract are liable to inundation by the flooding of these rivers and by
the overflow of the Ganges on its northern bank. The north-eastern
part of the District, which was formerly one of the most fertile regions
in the sub-tarai rice tract, has been devastated by the changes in the
course of the river Kosi. On the south of the Ganges the land is low,
but about 20 miles south of Bhagalpur town it rises gently till it merges
in the hilly country of the Chota Nagpur plateau.
The river system consists of a reach of the Ganges, about 6o miles in
length, with numerous Himalayan affluents on its north bank and a few
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