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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 8, p. 73.

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the east by the Agra and Muttra Districts of the United Provinces.
In shape Bharatpur is an irregular quadrilateral, nar-

rowing from south to north, with spurs projecting physical
into Alwar, Dholpur, and Agra. The central tahsils
are level, while the northern are to some extent, and the southern
considerably, diversified by hills. The general aspect is that of an
immense alluvial plain, fairly well wooded and cultivated, with detached
hills in the north, a hilly and broken district (called. the Ding) in
the south, and low narrow ranges on parts of the western and north-
eastern frontiers. The highest hill in the State is in. the west near
Alipur, 1,357 feet above the sea. The principal rivers are the BAN-
GANGA or Utangan, the Gambhir, Kakand, and Rűparel ; they
usually cease to flow about two months after the rainy season is over.
The Bângangd enters the State on the west and flows for about 55 miles
due east to the Agra border. Its floods were formerly, owing to the
neglect of the old irrigation works by Maharaja Jaswant Singh, the
cause of widespread ruin and agricultural depression not only along
the course of the stream in Bharatpur, but also farther east in Agra;
and the remonstrances of the United Provinces Government led to
the appointment in 1895 of an Executive Engineer with the primary
object of controlling them. Since then there have been no further
complaints of damage in Agra, chiefly because the irrigation works
undertaken for the proper distribution of the floods have caused them
to be freely utilized in Bharatpur, and have converted them from a
curse into â blessing. The Gambhir enters the State at the south-
western corner, and flows for about 35 miles, first east and next north
east, to Kurka, where it joins the Bângangâ. The Kakand is, or rather
was, the chief affluent of the Gambhir ; it is now most effectively
dammed by the great Bareta band. The Rűparel comes from the
Thâna Ghfrom the site of the famous battle-field of that name on its banks, and
on entering Bharatpur near Gopâlgarh is immediately held up by the
Sikri band.
Almost the whole of the northern portion of the State is covered
with alluvium, from which rise a few isolated hills of schist and quartz-
ite belonging to the Arâvalli and Delhi systems respectively. The
quartzites are well exposed in the Bayâna hills in the south, where
they have been divided into five groups: namely, LVer, Damdama,
Baydnâ, Badalgarh, and Nithâ,har. To the south-east, sandstones of
Upper Vindhyan age are faulted down against the quartzites, and
form horizontal plateaux overlooking the alluvium of the Chambal
Besides the usual small game, wild hog, nilgai (Boselaphus trago-
camelus), and occasionally wolves are found in the forest preserves
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