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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 8, p. 75.

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Tahan Pāl, who, in the eleventh century, was ruling ,at Bayānā, and
who subsequently possessed himself of almost all the State now called
Karauli. :ft is said that one of Madan Pal's descendants, Bal Chand,
kept a Jdt woman as his concubine, and by her had two sons (Bijai and
Sijai) who were not admitted into the Rajput brotherhood, but were
regarded as Jāts. Having no got or clan of their own, they took the
name of Sinsinwār from their paternal village, Sinsini (8 miles south of
Dig), and from them are descended the chiefs of Bharatpur. These
early Jāts were the Ishmaelites of the jungles, and their sole occupation
was plunder. The first to attain notoriety was Brijh, a contemporary
of Aurangzeb ; he is considered the founder of the State, and was killed
in the beginning of the eighteenth century, defending his little capital
of Sinsini against the attack of an imperial army which, had. been sent
to punish him. About the same time another member of the family
established himself in Thūn (12 miles west of Sinsini), and became
master of 40 villages. Churaman, the seventh son of Brijh, became the
acknowledged leader of the Jāts of Sinsini and Thūn, built forts there,
and possessed himself of Dig, Kūmher, and other places of importance.
He also joined forces with another Jdt of the Sogariya clan, named
Khem Karan, and so ravaged the country that the roads to Delhi and
Agra were completely closed. Farrukh Siyar in 1714 endeavoured to
conciliate them by giving them titles and several districts in jdgir, and
they ceased from plundering for a time; but hereditary inclinations
were too strong and opportunities too tempting, and they soon resumed
their former avocations. In 1718 the Jaipur chief, Sawai Jai Singh,
was sent with a strong force to expel Churāman from the country, and
Thūn and Sinsini were invested. The Jāts, after a gallant defence,
were about: to capitulate, when the Saiyid brothers, who then controlled
the government, and were at the head of a faction opposed to the
Jaipur chief, made peace direct with the Jdt envoy in Delhi, and Jai
Singh retired in disgust. Two years later Churaman supported the
Saiyids against Muhammad Shāh, but soon after he quarrelled with his
son, and in 1722 'took poison by swallowing a diamond.' The Cincin-
natus of the Jats, as Tod calls him, was succeeded by his son, Mohkam
Singh, who ruled for a very short time. His first step was to imprison
his cousin, Badan Singh, whom he feared as a rival, but the Jāts insisted
on his release. Badan Singh invited Mahāraja Sawai Jai Singh of
Jaipur to attack Than, and the place was captured after a six months'
siege, Mohkam Singh escaping with his life. Badan Singh was there-
upon proclaimed Rāja of Dig, on condition of paying tribute to Delhi,
and this year (1722) marks the recognition of Bharatpur as a separate
Badan Singh lived till about 1755, but soon after his accession left
the administration to his capable and successful son, Sūraj Mal, who
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