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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 8, p. 145.

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piece-goods. The chief industries are weaving and printing of cotton
cloth, the making of jewellery, and the preparation of gutkd, a mixture
of saffron, lime, and other ingredients eaten with betel-leaf, of which the
Bhopal variety is famous all over India. A combined cotton-ginning
factory, saw-mill, grass-press, and flour-mill is worked by the State, and
a bulk oil dep6t has been established here by a European firm.
The city is managed by a municipality, which was constituted in 1903.
The members of the committee are nominated by the State and number
39, of whom 5 are officials appointed ex offi-cio, including the State
engineer and medical officer; of the rest, it are selected from among
officials, and 23 from non-officials. The municipal income is Rs. 50,000
a year, allotted from State revenues. The conservancy, lighting, and
maintenance of roads, demolition of dangerous buildings, and control of
cemeteries are the most important functions of the committee. There
is a police force of 416 men under a special officer. Bhopal contains
a school for the sons of State Sardars under a European principal, and
three other State schools with about 6oo pupils, besides numerous
private institutions. Special schools for instruction in medicine and
midwifery are attached to the Prince of Wales's and Lady Lansdowne
Hospitals; there are also two girls' schools, and an industrial school for
females. Seven hospitals and dispensaries are maintained in the city,
besides three institutions for medical treatment after native methods.
Bhopawar Agency.-A Political Charge under the Central India
Agency, lying between 21' 22' and 23' 14' N. and 74' 2' and 76' 31E.,
with an area of about 7,684 square miles. It is bounded on the north
by Ratlam, the Indore Residency, Dewas, and Gwalior; on the south
by the Khandesh District of Bombay; on the east by British Nimar
and the Bhopal State ; and on the west by the Rewa Kantha Agency.
The physical aspects of the Agency vary markedly in different parts.
The two great ranges of the Vindhyas and Satpuras traverse it from
east to west, enfolding between them the broad and fertile valley of
the Narbada. To the north, beyond the Vindhyas, the greater part
of the Dhar State and the Amjhera district lie on the open Malwa
plateau. Below is the Narbada valley, and farther south the moun-
tainous forest:clad region, in which the Ali-Rajpur, Barwani, and Jobat
States lie, known as Bhilwara or the ` Bhil country,' a wild and sparsely
inhabited tract. The famous stronghold of MANDU, the Buddhist
caves of BAGH, and the sacred hill ,of Bawangaja near BARWANI, are
situated in this charge, while numerous ruined forts, mosques, and
palaces, now buried deep in jungle, testify to its prosperity and impor-
tance in Mughal days, when it formed a part of the Bijagarh sarkar
of the Sfbah of Malwa.
The population in igoi was 547,546, of whom Hindus numbered
257,408, or 47 per cent. ; Animists, 250,042, or 46 per cent. ; Musal-
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