was under the political control of the Collector of Satara, but was
then transferred to Poona. The chief has the title of Pandit of Bhor
and Pant Sachiv, and ranks as a first-class Sardar of the Deccan.
A tribute of Rs. 1o,ooo, being the commuted value of an elephant
subsidy once annually `furnished by the chief, is paid to the British
Government. The present chief has enjoyed a personal salute of
9 guns since the Delhi Darbar of 1903, in recognition of his loyalty
and efficient administration.
The population. was 137,268 in igo1, compared with 155,699 in
1891, inhabiting one town (BHOR) and 483 villages. Shirwal, a
municipal village, contains a series of Buddhistic caves of the same
plain type as KARAD in Satara District. Hindus number 135,000
and Musalmans 1,7oo. The principal castes are Brahmans (5:,000),
Marathas (75,ooo), Kunbis (14,ooo), Dhangars (5,ooo), and Mahars
(14,ooo). Except a few cotton-weavers, the great majority of the
people are supported by agriculture.
The prevailing type of soil, is red. About 404 square miles are
occupied for cultivation. The principal crops are rice and nagli. A
small area of land is irrigated from wells and fair-season dams. The
area of forests is 104 square miles. Iron-smelting, formerly of some
importance, has been abandoned, and the State is poor in industries.
The chief roads are the Mahad-Pandharpur (cart-road), Poona-Belgaum
(mail-road), and the Poona-Panvel road down the Bhor ghdi. Bhor
contains seven post offices managed by the State, and is one of the
States in Bombay which have postal arrangements of their own.
The State suffered severely from famine in 1896-7 and again in
1899-19oo. Relief measures were necessary on both occasions. In
the latter famine the maximum number of workers was 2,ooo, and
nearly Rs. 63,000 was spent on famine relief. The State has also
suffered from plague.
Bhor is under the political supervision of the Collector of Poona,
and the administration is conducted in close accordance with British
laws. Criminal and civil justice are administered by the chief him-
self, with the aid of subordinate courts. Except that the trial of all
persons for capital offences requires the Political Agent's sanction,
the Pant Sachiv exercises full criminal and civil powers, and his
decision in such cases is not subject to appeal to the Political Agent.
The revenue is ME' lakhs, chiefly derived from land (24 lakhs), excise
(Rs. 2o,ooo), and forests (Rs. ii,ooo). The State has recently (1896-9
been surveyed and the rates of assessment vary from Rs. 12 to one
anna per acre. This settlement enhanced the revenue by Rs. 24,500.
The State contains two municipalities, Bxox and Shirwal, with an
aggregate income in 1903-4 of Rs. 5,240. The police force consists
of 215 men. There are 43 schools with 1,545 pupils. The Bhor