in Dehra Dun on the western bank of the Ganges. These hills are
little more than rugged and barren rocks, except in the valleys and on
the lower slopes. They include an area of about ag square miles.
South of the hills and along the north-east border lies a broad level belt
of forest varying from z to io miles in width, across which flow numer-
ous streams from the hills in the neighbouring District of Garhwal.
Large clearances have been made in places, and cultivation sometimes
extends as far as the submontane road. This tract resembles the
Bhabar in the adjacent District of Nain! Tal, but the marshy tarai belt
found in Naini Tal does not occur here. The rest of the District is an
open upland plain crossed by river valleys. The largest river is the
Ganges, which debouches on the plain near the north of the District,
and is there a rapid stream flowing over boulders. Lower down its
course is less rapid, its bed becomes wide, and the river is navigable
from Nagal. The first considerable affluent of the Ganges is the
Malin, which rises in the Garhwal hills and flows across the north-west
portion of the District. The river is celebrated in Sanskrit literature,
and the scene of Kalidasa's play of Sakunhdla is laid near its banks. It
has also been identified with the Erineses mentioned by Megasthenes.
The Khoh rises in the Garhwal hills, east of the Malin, and flows
almost due south, joining the Ramganga near the border of the Dis-
trict. The latter river crosses the Garhwal border near the eastern
corner, and meanders across the eastern portion of the Nagina tahsil.
Both the Khoh and Ramganga are liable to sudden floods which sub-
side as quickly as they rise. Many smaller streams from the lower hills
join these large rivers after a short course.
Nearly the whole of the District is situated on the Gangetic alluvium,
with a bhdbar zone of coarse gravels along the north-east border. The
ChandI hills are composed of Upper Tertiary rocks, all in a rapid state
of decay by weathering. These rocks comprise, towards the plains,
a gentle normal anticlinal arch in middle Siwalik soft sand rock, which
is very micaceous. North-east lies the southern limit of a synclinal
trough in upper Siwalik conglomerates'.
The forests of Bijnor will be described later. The rest of the Dis-
trict presents no peculiarities in its flora. Fine groves of mango-trees
are found in every part. The river valleys as well as the forest glades
produce grasses which are utilized for thatching, for basket-work, for
matting, and for making rope and twine. The wild hemp (Cannabis
sativa) grows abundantly; the leaves are collected, and, when dry, are
known as bhang, which is used for preparing a refreshing drink.
Tigers and leopards were formerly common in the forests, together
' R. D. Oldham, ' Geology of Part of the Gangasulan Pargana,' Records, Geological
Survey of India, xvii, pt. iv; and C. S. Middlemiss, ' Physical Geology of the Sub-
Himalaya of Garhwal and Kumaun,' Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, xxiv, pt. ii.
VOL. VIII. 0