BÎKANER CITY 217
the cost about Rs. 25,ooo, both figures being considerably below the
normal. The jail manufactures yield a net profit of about RS. 20,000
a year, and consist of carpets (specially famous at the Central jail),
rugs, woollen shawls, blankets, curtains, rope, &c.
In the literacy of its population Bikaner stands thirteenth among the
twenty States and chiefships of Rajputana, with 2-5 her cent. (4-7 males
and 012 females) able to read and write. In 1905, excluding indigenous
schools such as chatsrzls, 38 institutions, with 2,011 pupils on the rolls,
were maintained by the State., The daily average attendance was
1,543, and the expenditure on education, including Rs. 3,000 spent
at the Mayo College at Ajmer, was about Rs. 28,400. Education is
given free throughout the State. Save at the high school, from which,
since its affiliation to the Allahabad University in 1897, 32 boys have
passed the matriculation and middle school examinations, the school
for the sons of nobles, and three schools in the districts, the vernacular
alone is taught. Female education is backward; there is but one girls'
school in the State, at the capital.
The State possesses r3 hospitals and 3 dispensaries, with accommo-
dation for 191 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was
110,409, of whom r,9oo were in-patients, and 9,367 operations were
performed. The total expenditure was about Rs. 40,500.
Vaccination is nowhere compulsory, but is on the whole popular.
In 1904-5 a staff of 12 men successfully vaccinated 21,678 persons, or
nearly 37 per i,ooo of the population.
[P. W. Powlett, Gazetteer of the Bikaner State (1874); P. J. Fagan,
Report on the Settlement of the Khâlsa Villages of the Bikaner State (1893);
W. H. Neilson, Medzio-topographical Account of Bikaner (1898) ; Reports
on the Administration of the Bikaner State (1893-4 to 1895-6, and
1902-3 to date).]
Bikaner City (` the settlement or habitation (ner) of Bika').-Capital
of the State of the same name in Rajputana, situated in 28° N. and
73° W E., 1,340 miles by rail north-west of Calcutta and 759 miles
almost due north of Bombay, on the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway. Bikaner
is the fourth largest city in Rajputana. Its population at each of
the three enumerations was : (1881) 33,154, (189x) 50,513, and (igoi)
53075• In the last year Hindus numbered 38,796, or more than 73
per cent. of the total; Musalmans, io,igi, or more than i9 per cent.;
and Jains, 3,936, or 7 per cent.; there were also a few Christians,
Sikhs, Parsis, and Aryas.
The city, which was founded in 1488, is situated on a slight elevation
about 736 feet above sea-level, and has an imposing appearance, being
surrounded by a fine wall crowned with battlements, and possessing
many lofty houses and temples and a massive fort. The wall, 42 miles
in circuit, is built wholly of stone, and has five gates and six sally-ports.