BOMBA Y CITY
Bombay City.-The capital of the I'residerrcy of Bombay, and the
principal seaport of Western India, situated on an island in r8° 55~ N.
and qz° 54' E. Bombay Island is one of a group lying off the coast of
the Konkan ; but by the recent construction of causeways and break-
waters it is now permanently united on the north end with the larger
island of Salsette, and so continuously witlr the mainland. The
remainder of the group of islands constitutes a part of Kolāba Distriēt.
For certain administrative purposes Bombay city is regarded as consti-
tuting a District by itself, with an area of zz square miles, and a
population, according to the Census of rgor, of gq6,oo6. A special
enumeration, in rgo6, gave a total of ggq,8zz.
In the beauty of its scenery, as well as in the: commercial advantages
of its position, Bombay is unsurpassed by any city of the East. The,
entrance into the harbour from the sea discloses a mag-
Description, nificént panorama. The background is shut in by the
range of the Western Ghāts. In front opens the wide harbour, studded
with islands, dotted with the white sails of innumerable native craft, and
affording a secure shelter to fleets of steamers. The city itself consists
of well-built houses and broad streets ennobled by public buildings.
The seashore is formed by docks, warehouses, and a long line of arti-
ficial embankments extending continuously for nearly 5 miles. On
approaching Bombay from the west, there is little to strike the eye : the
coast is low, the highest point, Malabar Hill, being only about r8o feet
above the sea. But on entering the harbour a stranger is impressed
with the picturesqueness of the scene. To the west the shore is
crowded with buildings, some of them, as (;olāba Church and the
Rājābai Clock-tower of the University, very lofty and well-proportioned.
To the north and east are numerous islands ; and pre-eminent among
the hills on the mainland is Bāva Malang, otherwise called Malanggarh,
on the top of which is an enormous mass of perpendicular rock, crowned
with a ruined fort. The harbour presents an animated and picturesque
scene. There are usually a troopship and a man-of-war of H.M.'s East
India Squadron, together with numerous large passenger or merchant
steamers, among which may be mentioned those of the Peninsular and
Oriental Company, the British India Steam Navigation Company, the
Messageries Maritimes, the Italian Rubattino, the Austrian Lloyd, the
Clan, Anchor, and Hall lines. Many other steamers, and an occa-
sional sailing vessel, are to be seen riding at anchor, swinging with the
swiftly-flowing tide, and discharging or receiving cargo. All kinds of
boats, ships' dingies, steam-launches, native Z~aghlas and padaos inces-
santly ply on the harbour. At the southernmost point of the ` Prongs,'
a dangerous reef jutting out from Colāba Point, stands the lighthouse,
built in ī8q4, and containing a first-class dioptric light, which is visible
for r8 miles.