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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 48.

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Bulandshahr District.--District in the Meerut Division, United
Provinces, lying between z8 4' and a8 43' N. and 77' 18' and q8 a8'
E., with an area of 1,899 square miles. It is situated
aspects. in the Doab or alluvial plain between the Ganges
and Jumna, which form its eastern and western boun-
daries, dividing it from Moradabad and Budaun, and from the Punjab
Districts of Delhi and Gurgaon, respectively. On the north and south
lie Meerut and Aligarh Districts. The central portion forms an elevated
plain, flanked by strips of low-lying land, called hhddar, on the banks of
the two great rivers. The Jumna khadar is an inferior tract, from
5 to to miles wide, except in the south, where the river flows close to its
eastern high bank. The swampy nature of the soil is increased in the
north by the two rivers, Hindan and Bhuriya, but flooding from the
Jumna has been prevented by the embankments protecting the head-
works of the Agra Canal. The Ganges khddar is narrower, and in
one or two places the river leaves fertile deposits which are regularly
cultivated. Through the centre of the upland flows the East Kali
Nadi, in a narrow and well-defined valley which suffers from flooding
in wet years. The western half contains a sandy ridge, now marked by
the Mat branch of the Upper Ganges Canal and two drainage lines
known as the Patwai and Karon or Karwan. The eastern portion is
drained by another channel called the Chhoiya. The whole of this
tract is a fertile stretch of country,'which owes much to the extension
of canal-irrigation.
The soil is entirely alluvium in which kankar is the only stone found,
while the surface occasionally bears saline efliorescences.
The flora of the District presents no peculiarities. At one time thick
jungle covered with dhak (Butea frondosa) was common; but the
country was denuded of wood for fuel when the East Indian Railway
was first opened, and trees have not been replanted. The commonest
and most useful trees are the babul and hikar (Acacia arabica and
A. eburnia). The shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo), nim (Nlelia Azadirachta),
and pipal (Ficus religiosa) are also common. In the east the landlords
have encouraged the plantation of fine mango groves.
Wild hog and hog deer are common in the khddar. Both antelope
and nilgai are found in the uplands, but are decreasing owing to the
spread of cultivation. The leopard, wolf, and hyena are occasionally
met with. In the cold season duck and snipe collect in large numbers
on the ponds and marshes. Fish are not much consumed in the Dis-
tract, though plentiful in the rivers.
The climate resembles that Of MEERUT DISTRICT, but no meteoro-
logical observations are made here, except a record of rainfall. The
extension of canal-irrigation has increased malaria, but its effects have
been mitigated by the improvement of the drainage system.
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