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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 49.

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The annual rainfall averages about 26 inches, of which 24 inches are
usually measured between June I and the end of October. Large
variations occur in different years, the fall varying from under 15 inches
to over 40 inches. There is not much difference between the amounts
in different parts of the District, but the eastern half receives slightly
more than the western.
The early traditions of the people assert that the modern District of
Bulandshahr formed a portion of the Yandava kingdom of Hastinapur,
and that after that city had been cut away by the History.
Ganges the tract was administered by a governor who
resided at the ancient town of Axnx. Whatever credence may be
placed in these myths, we know from the evidence of an inscription that
the District was inhabited by Gaur Brahmans and ruled over by the
Gupta dynasty in the fifth century of our era. Few. glimpses of light
have been ;cast upon the annals of this region before the advent of
the Muhammadans, with whose approach detailed history begins for the
whole of Northern India. In ior8, when Mahmfid of Ghazni arrived
at Baran (as the-town of Bulandshahr is sometimes called to the
present day), he found it in possession of a native prince named Har
Dat. The presence of so doughty an apostle as Mahmud naturally
affected the Hindu ruler; and accordingly the Raja himself and ro,ooo
followers came forth, says the Musalman historian, I and proclaimed
their anxiety for conversion and their rejection of idols.' This timely
repentance saved their lives and property for the time; but Mahmud's
raid was the occasion for a great immigration towards the Doab of
fresh tribes who still hold a place in the District. In I I93 Kutb-ud-din
appeared before Baran, which was for some time strenuously defended
by the Dor Raja, Chandra Sen ; but through the treachery of his
kinsman, Jaipal, it was at last captured by the Musalmans. The
traitorous Hindu accepted the faith of Islam and the Chaudhriship of
Baran, where his descendants still reside, and own some small landed
property. The fourteenth century is marked as an epoch when many
of the tribes now inhabiting Bulandshahr first gained a footing in the
region. Numerous Rajput adventurers poured into the defenceless
country and expelled the Meos from their lands and villages. This was
also the period of the early Mongol invasions ; so that the condition of
the Doab was one of extreme wretchedness, caused by the combined
ravages of pestilence, war, and famine, with the usual concomitant of
internal anarchy. The firm establishment of the Mughal dynasty gave
a long respite of tranquillity and comparatively settled government to,
these harassed provinces. They shared in the administrative recon•
struction of Akbar ; their annals are devoid of incident during the
flourishing reigns of his great successors. Here, as in so many other
Districts, the proselytizing zeal of Aurangzeb has left permanent effects
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