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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 53.

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The chief food-crops and the area occupied by each in square miles
were: wheat (424), gram (199), maize (188), barley (227), jo ewdr (156),
and bdjra (121). The area under maize has trebled during the last
twenty-five years. Bdjra is chiefly grown on inferior soil in the
Sikandarabad and Khurja tahsils. The other important crops are
cotton (103) and sugar-cane (63), both of which are rapidly increas-

ing in importance. On the other hand, the area under indigo has
declined from 120 square miles in 1885 to 25 in 1903-4.
From 1870 to 1874 a model farm was maintained at Bulandshahr,
and attempts were made to introduce Egyptian cotton ; but these were
not successful. The chief improvements effected have been the exten-
sion of canal-irrigation, and its correction by means of drainage cuts.
Much has also been done to straighten and deepen the channels of
the rivers described above, especially the East Kali Nadi. These
have led to the extended cultivation of the more valuable staples;
Very few advances have been made under the Agriculturists' Loans
Act;; and between x891 and 19oo only Rs. 30,000 was given under
the Land Improvement Loans Act. In 1903-4 the loans were
Rs. 1,7oo. The agricultural show held annually at Bulandshahr town
has done much to stimulate interest in small improvements.
An attempt was made in 1865 to improve the cattle by importing
bulls from Hariana ; but the zanninders were not favourable. The
ordinary cattle are poor, and the best animals are imported from
Raj.putana, Mewar, or Bijnor. Horse-breeding has, however, become
an important pursuit, and there are twenty stallions owned by Govern
ment in this District. The zaminddrs of all classes are anxious to
obtain their services, and strong handsome colts and fillies are to be
seen in many parts. Mules are also bred, and ten donkey stallions
have been supplied. Since 1903 ,horse and mule-breeding operations
have been controlled by the Army Remount department. Sheep
and goats are kept in large numbers, but are of the ordinary inferior
The. District is exceptionally well provided with means of irrigation.
The main channel of the Upper Ganges Canal passes through the
centre from north to south. Near the eastern border irrigation is
supplied by the Anupshahr branch of the same canal, while the western
half is watered by the Mat branch. The Lower Ganges Canal
has its head-works in this District, leaving the right bank of the Ganges
at the village of Naraura. Most of the wells in use are masonry,
and water is raised almost universally in leathern buckets worked by
bullocks. In 1903-4 canals irrigated 323 square miles and wells 310.
Other sources. are insignificant.
Salt was formerly manufactured largely in the Jumna khddar, but
none is made now. The extraction of sodium sulphate has also been
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