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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 54.

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forbidden. There are sixty factories where crude saltpetre is pro
duced, and one refinery. Where kankar occurs in compact masses,
it is quarried in blocks and used for building purposes.
Till recently Bulandshahr was one of the most important indigo-
producing Districts in the United Provinces. There were more than
120 factories in i891 ; but the trade has fallen off
Trade and
communications. and in 1902 there were only 47, which
employed about 3,8oo hands. Cotton is ginned and
pressed at 12 factories, which employ more than goo hands ; and this
industry is increasing. The owners of the factories have imported the
latest machinery from England. Other manufactures are not of great
importance; but the calico-printing of JAHANGIRABAD, the muslins of
SIKANDARABAD, the pottery of KHURJA, the rugs of JEWAR, and the
wood-carving of BULANDSHAHR and SHIKARPUR deserve mention for
their artistic: merits. There is also a flourishing glass industry in
the Bulandshahr tahsil, where bangles and small phials and bottles
are largely made. Cotton cloth is woven as a hand industry in
many places.
Grain and cotton form the principal exports; the weight of cleaned
cotton exported is nearly 4,000 tons, having doubled in the last twenty-
five years. The imports include piece-goods, metals, and salt. Anfip-
shahr is a dep6t for the import of timber and bamboos rafted down
the Ganges; but Khurja and Dibai have become the largest com-

mercial centres, owing to their proximity to the railway. Local trade is
carried on at numerous small towns, where markets are held once or
twice a week.
The East Indian Railway runs from south to north through the
western half of the District. For strategic reasons it was built on
the shortest possible alignment, and thus passes some distance from the
principal towns; but a branch line is under construction, which will
connect Khurja and Bulandshahr and join the Oudh and Rohilkhand
Railway at Hapur in Meerut District. A branch of the Oudh and
Rohilkhand Railway from Aligarh to Moradabad and Bareilly crosses
the south-east corner.
There are 163 miles of metalled and 495 miles of unmetalled
roads. The whole length of metalled roads is in charge of the Public
Works department, but the cost of 109 miles of these, and the whole
cost of the unmetalled roads, is met from Local funds. Avenues of
trees are maintained on 257 miles. The principal line is that of the
grand trunk road from Calcutta to Delhi, branches of which leave
Bulandshahr for Meerut and Anupshahr. The only parts where com,
munications are defective are the northern Jumna khccdar and the
north-eastern and south-eastern corners of the District.
Bulandshahr shared in the many famines which devastated the
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