56 T UIAND SIIAKR DISTINCT
project for a permanent settlement entailed a complete revision. This
showed that there had been an extraordinary rise in rental 'assets,'
which was partly due to survey errors, partly to concealments at the
time of settlement, and partly to an increase in the rental value of land.
The idea of permanently fixing the revenue was abandoned, and the
demand originally proposed was sanctioned, with a few alterations,
yielding 12-4 lakhs. The `assets,' of which the revenue formed half,
were calculated by fixing standard rent rates for different classes of soil.
These rates were derived partly from average rents and partly from
valuations of produce. The latest revision of settlement was completed
between 1886 and 1889, and was notorious for its results. The assess-
ment was to be made on the actual rental `assets'; but the records
were found to be unreliable on account of the dishonesty of many land-
lords, who had deliberately falsified the patwaris' papers, thrown land
out of cultivation, and stopped irrigation. The tenants, who had been
treated harshly and not allowed to acquire occupancy rights, themselves
came forward to expose the fraud. Large numbers of rent-rolls were
entirely rejected, and the villages they related to were valued at circle
rates. The circle rates were obtained by an analysis of rents believed
to be genuine. While the settlement of most of the District was con-
firmed for thirty years, a number of villages were settled for shorter
terms to enable the settlement to be made on the basis of a fair area
of cultivation. The total demand was fixed at i9-8 lakhs, which has
`since risen to 20 lakhs. The incidence per acre is Rs. 1-15-0, varying
in different parts of the District from Rs. 1-a-0 to Rs. a-9-0.
Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have been,
in thousands of rupees:-
There are four municipalities-BULANDSHAHR, ANiJPSHAHR, S1KAN-
DARABAD, and KHURJA--and 19 towns are administered under Act XX
of 1856. Outside these, local affairs are managed by the District
board. In 1903-4 the income of the latter was 1-9 lakhs, chiefly
derived from local rates. The expenditure was a lakhs, of which
Rs. 96,ooo was spent on roads and buildings.
In 19o3 the District Superintendent of police was assisted by four
inspectors. The force numbered 106 officers and 355 constables, be-
sides 369 municipal and town police, and 1,979 village and road police.
The District jail contained an average of 232 prisoners in the same year.
Bulandshahr is backward in literacy, and only z-5 per cent. (4•5 males
and 0•3 females) of the population could read and write in 19or. In