68 B UL SAR TO WN
women's robes, and of bricks, tiles, and pottery. The town contains
a Sub-Judge's court, a dispensary, and two English schools, of which
one is a high school, attended by for and 159 pupils. It has also
9 vernacular schools, 6 for boys and 3 for girls, attended respectively by
412 and 219 pupils.
Bumbra-ke-Thul.-The modern name of BRAHMANABAD, a ruined
town in Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay.
Bundala.-Village in the District and tahsil of Amritsar, Punjab,
situated in 31° 32' N. and 74° 59' E., I I miles south-east of Amritsar
city. Population (1901), 4,5oo. The place is of little commercial im-
portance, and is chiefly noticeable for its famous monastery of Jog-is.
Bundelkhand (British).-A tract of country in the United Pro-
vinces, which includes the Districts of JALAUN, JHANsi, HAMIRPUR,
and BANDA, with those parts of ALLAHABAD which lie south of the
Jumna and Ganges. It thus consists of an area of about 1 r,6oo square
miles, lying south-west of the Jumna from its junction with the Cham
bal. The name is taken from that of the Bundela Thakurs, the most
important clan inhabiting it. The word Bundela is popularly derived
from bund, ' a drop,' in allusion to the attempted sacrifice of himself
by the founder of the clan, a Gaharwar. His son was born from
the drops of blood which fell on the altar of Vindhyabasin! Devi at
Bindhachal (see MIRZAPUR CITY). Other derivations are from
Vindhya, or from bdndi, `a slave-girl.'
The northern range of the Eastern Vindhyas called Bindhachal cuts
across the south of Jhansi, Banda, and Allahabad, with many outlying
hills, but nowhere rises above 2,000 feet. The base
aspects. of the hills rests on gneiss, while the hills them-
selves are of sandstone, overlaid south of these
Provinces by basalt, the Deccan trap, which has also spread north
in dikes. From the hills numerous streams flow north or north-east
towards the Jumna, of which the most important are the Betwa,
Dhasan, Birma, Ken, BAghain, Paisuni, and Southern Tons. The
geological formation of Southern Bundelkhand has greatly influenced
the soil of the alluvial plain lying between the hills and the Jumna.
This contains a large proportion of disintegrated trap, which gives it
a dark colour; it is especially adapted for growing wheat, and is known
as `black soil,' and in the vernacular as nor. A variety of lighter
colour and differing qualities is known as War. From Jhansi to Lalit-
pur a soil called rdkar is found, the prevailing colour of which is
largely red or yellow, owing to the presence of iron in the disintegrated
gneiss. Another soil of red colour is formed from disintegrated sand-
stone in situ, and though productive is easily exhausted, as it is very
shallow. Black soil is retentive of moisture, but requires irrigation
in unfavourable seasons, and in dry weather opens out in large cracks.