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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 69.


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BRITISH BUNDF,LKHAND 69
During the rains unmetalled roads are almost impassable owing to the
tenacious mud formed on them. A native proverb says that kcibar is
too wet to plough one morning, and too dry and hard to plough the
next day.
In Banda, as in other tracts crossed by the Vindhyas, many varieties
of stone implements have been found, the relics of prehistoric man'.
The earliest traditions connected with British Bundel-

khand relate that it was ruled over by Gaharwar Raj- History,
puts. Nothing certain is known of these; but some of the numerous
tanks formed by throwing embankments across the narrow ends of
valleys are attributed to them, namely, those where the embankments
are formed of uncut stone. The largest is the Bijainagar lake, situated
about three miles east of Mahoba. According to tradition the Gahar-
wars were followed by Parihars, who were in turn succeeded by Chan-
dels, a clan which has left many memorials of its rule. Nothing but
the name is known of Nanika or Nannuka, described in several inscrip-
tions as the founder of the dynasty; but he probably flourished in the
first half of the ninth century A. D. The fourth Raja, Rahila (circa
8go-gio), seems to have extended his dominions, and he constructed
the Rahilya Sagar `lake') at Mahoba, with a fine temple, now in
ruins, on its embankment. The earliest dated inscriptions are those
of Dhanga (950-99), who appears to have been the most powerful of
the early Chandels. He assisted Jaipal of Lahore in his unsuccessful
invasion of the Ghazni kingdom in 978, and according to his inscrip-
tions was recognized as overlord by the rulers of most of Central,
Southern, and Eastern India; but this is clearly an exaggeration.
His successor, Ganda (999-1025), who appears as Nanda Rai in the
Muhammadan histories, also assisted Jaipal of Lahore against Mahmud
of Ghazni ; and according to Firishta he killed the king of Kanauj
in 1021, but surrendered to Mahmfid in 1023, when he was in pos-
session of fourteen forts. Kirtti Varmma I, the eleventh king (1049-
1 roo), seems to have been reigning when his son, Sallakshana, conquered
Karna, king of Chedi or Southern Kosala. He is also the earliest
Chandel whose coins, copied from those of the Chedi kings, are known.
Tradition assigns to him the construction of'the Kirat Sagar at Mahoba,
and some buildings at Ajaigarh. Madan Varmma, the fifteenth king
(1130-65), was a vigorous ruler, who extended the sway of the Chandels.
He again subdued the Chedi kingdom, which had become independent,
and is said to have conquered Gujarat. His immediate successor,
Paramardi Deva or Parmal (1165-1203), is still remembered, as during
his reign Prithwi Raj of Delhi conquered Bundelkhand in 1182, and
the Chandel power received a second blow in 1203, when Kutb-ud-din
' J. Rivett-Carnac,Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1883, P. 221, and J. Cockburn,
ibid., 1894, pt. iii, p. 21.
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