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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 91.

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at the time of the Permanent Settlement, and the present land revenue
of the Division thus exceeds that of the great Patna Division, which
has nearly double its area and population.
Burdwan District.-District in the Burdwan Division of Bengal,
lying between 22 56' and 23 53' N. and 86 48' and 88 25' E., with
an area of 2,689 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the
Santal Parganas, Birbhum, and Murshidabad ; on the east by Nadia ;
on the south by Hooghly, Midnapore, and Bankura; and on the west
by Manbhum. The administrative head-quarters are at BURDwnx
About half of the District is flat, and in the east along the banks of
the Bhagirathi the soil is waterlogged and swampy. In the north-west,
however, the surface undulates, and it is here that the
famous RaniganJ coal-field is situated. This corner physical
of the District is one of the busiest industrial tracts
in Bengal, and its coal and iron-fields are thronged by miners from
the neighbouring Districts.
The principal rivers are the Damodar, the Dhalkisor or Dwarkeswar,
the Khari, the Banka, and the Ajay, all eventually flowing into the
Bhagirathi or Hooghly, which demarcates the eastern boundary of
the District. The Barakar, though not properly speaking a river
of Burdwan, passes along the north-western boundary for a few miles
before its junction with the Damodar. The Ajay touches Burdwan at
its extreme north-western corner, and forms its northern boundary till
shortly before its junction with the Bhagirathi. The Dwarkeswar runs
for about 5 miles along the southern corner of the District. The Khari,
a tortuous stream rising in the Galsi thana, joins the Bhagirathi some
6 miles north of Kalna. The Banka, which also rises in the Galsi thana
and passes through the town of Burdwan, flows into the Khari shortly
before its junction with the Bhagirathi. The Kunur, which rises in
the Faridpur outpost, is a tributary of the Ajay ; and the Singaran,
which flows through the Raniganj thdiaa, joins the Damodar.
The District is covered by alluvium, except in the Asansol subdivi-
sion, where Gondwana rocks are exposed. These strata extend into the
Districts of Bankura, the Santal Parganas, and Manbhum, the outcrop
covering an area of 500 square miles ; they have a dip of from 5 to 25
to the south, and along the southern boundary are turned up and cut off
by a great fault. The total thickness is estimated at r i,ooo feet; and
the strata are divisible into the Talchers at the base, the Damodar in
the centre, and the Panchet at the top. The Talchers consist of fine
silty shales and soft sandstones, among which occur, generally towards
the base of the group, well-rolled pebbles and boulders of gneiss and
other metamorphic rocks. The Damodar series is subdivided, in
ascending order, into the, Barakar stage, the ironstone shales, and the
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