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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 260.

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the Dhansiri valley, to the plains of Cāchār, and for many years their
capital was at MAIBANG, in North Cāchār, on the northern side of the
Barail range. Early in the nineteenth century Tula Rām Senāpati, a
chaprdsi in the employ of the Kāchari Rājā, succeeded in establishing
himself here; and till 1854 he and his sons were recognized by the
British Government as feudatory chiefs of the desolate tract of jungle
lying between the Mahur river on the south and the Jamunā river in
Nowgong District on the north. The whole of the subdivision consists
of mountainous country, the hills taking the form of serrated ridges,
whose sides in their natural condition are clothed with dense evergreen
forest. Shifting cultivation is practised, according to which the land,
after being twice cropped, is allowed to lie fallow for seven or eight years,
when it becomes covered with a dense growth of reeds and bamboo
jungle. The population is extremely sparse, and excluding the persons
enumerated by the railway authorities, there were in r9o1 only 12
persons per square mile. In r89r the population was 18,941, and in
1901 it had risen to 40,812 ; but almost the whole of this increase was
due to the presence of a large number of persons engaged on the con-
struction of the railway, who have since left the District. The Assam-
Bengal Railway runs through the subdivision, connecting the Brahma-
putra Valley with the sea at Chittagong. Its construction was a work of
great difficulty and expense, owing to the fact that the hills are largely
composed of shale, while the country is covered with jungle, destitute of
supplies, and very unhealthy for people working under such conditions
as the railway employés. The subdivision is administered by a police
officer exercising magisterial powers with head-quarters at HAFLANG, and
contains 254 villages. House tax is assessed in lieu of land revenue.
The assessment under this head in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 6,6oo. The
rainfall is much lighter than in the Cāchār plains, the high wall of the
Barail acting as a barrier to the monsoon clouds. At Hāflang the
average fall is only 77 inches, and at Maibang farther north 55 inches.
Calcutta (Kalikātd).-Capital of the Indian Empire and the official
residence of the Viceroy and Governor-General, situated in 22° 34' N.
and 88° 22' E., on .the east or left bank of the
Description. Hooghly river, within the Twenty-four Parganas Dis
tract, Bengal. The city lies about 86 miles from the sea, and is only 18 to
21 feet above mean sea-level. Stretching northward for 6 miles along
the river-bank, and bounded on the east by the Circular Canal and the
Salt Lakes, it covers at the present day an area of 20,547 acres, of which
only 1,792 are rural, and 1,113 acres form the Maidan. Calcutta is so
called after a village which formerly occupied the site of the modern
Bow Bazar : the name is supposed by some to be connected with the
worship of the goddess Kdh.
The city is bounded on all sides by suburban municipalities, which
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