g o z CARNA TIC
languages, though it is admitted that it usually denoted the latter alone,
and though it is to the latter that the abbreviated form Kannadam
has been appropriated. Karnātaka (that which belongs to Karnāta)
is regarded as a Sanskrit word by native Pandits ; but I agree with
Dr. Gundert in preferring to derive it from the Dravidien words kar,
"black," nizdu (the adjective form of which in Telugu is nicti), "country,"
that is, " the black country," a term very suitable to designate the
" black cotton soil," as it Is called, of the plateau of the Southern
I~eccan. The use of the term is of considerable antiquity, as we find
it in the hariaha-Mihira at the beginning of the fifth 1 century A. D.
Tārānātha also mentions Karnāta. The word Karnāta or Karnātaka,
though at first a generic term, became in process of time the appellation
of the Kanarese people and of their language alone, to the entire
exclusion of the Telugu. Karnātaka has now got into the hands of
foreigners, who have given it a new and entirely erroneous application.
When the Muhammadans arrived in Southern India, they found that
part of it with which they first became acquainted-the country above
the Ghāts, including Mysore and part of Telingāna-called the Karnā
taka country. In course of time, by a misapplication of terms, they
applied the same name Karnātak, or Carnatic, to designate the country
below the Ghāts, as well as that which was above. The English have
carried the misapplication a step farther, and restricted the name to the
country below the Ghats, which never had any right to it whatever.
Hence the Mysore country, which is probably the true Carnatic, is no
longer called by that name ; and what is now geographically termed
" the Carnatic " is exclusively the country below the Ghāts on the
It is this latter country which formed the dominions of the Nawābs
of the Carnatic, who played such an important part in the struggle for
supremacy between the English and the French in the eighteenth
century, and which now forms the greater portion of the present
Madras Presidency. This connotation still survives in the designation
of Madras regiments as Carnatic infantry. Administratively, however,
the term Carnatic (or Karnâtak as it is there used) is now restricted
to the Bombay portion of the original Karnāta: namely, the Districts of
Belgaum, Dhârwār, and :Bijāpur, and part of North Kanara, with the
Native States of the Southern Marāthā Agency and Kolhāpur. See
SOUTHERN MARATHA COUNTRY.
Car Nicobar.-The northernmost of the NICOIiAR ISLANDS.
Cashmere.-Native State in Northern India. See KASHMIR AND
Cassergode.-Tâluk of South Kanara District, Madras. See
Castle Rock.-Village in the Supa petha of the Haliyāl tâluka of
North Kanara District, Bombay, situatčd in r5° z4' N. and q4° zo' E.,
on the Southern Mahratta Railway, z9o miles from Poona, and an
' Recte ° sixth: