3 i a CA WNPORE DLSTRICT
The trade of the District largely centres in Cawnpore city, which not
only takes the lead in industrial enterprise, but is also the greatest com-
mercial mart in Upper India. Articles manufactured here are exported
to all parts of the country, and several classes of goods are sent abroad.
Grain and pulses, oilseeds, and sugar are exportéd ; while raw cotton,
salt and saltpetre, metals, and piece-goods are imported for distribution
to the surrounding Districts. The traffic is largely carried on the
railway;, but grain and cotton are also brought into Cawnpore by road
and by the Lower Ganges Canal.
Cawnpore city is an important railway junction. The oldest line is
the East Indian Railway, passing across the District from east to west.
Through communication with Bombay is supplied by the Indian Mid-
land branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, while a branch of
the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway runs to Lucknow. The Cawnpore-
Achhnerâ metre-gauge line traverses a rich tract in the Agra Division,
and is connected with the Bengal and North-~~'estern Railway. The
District is well supplied with means of communication, being the centré
of a system of metalled roads, radiating in all directions with a total
length of zo5 miles, maintained by the Public Works department,
r48 miles being repaired at the cost of Provincial revenues. '1 here are
also q98 miles of unmetalled roads in charge of the District board.
Avenues of trees are kept up on 567 miles. The main routes are the
grand trunk road, and the roads from Cawnpore city to Jhânsi and
Saugor, and to Hamirpur.
Cawnpore is not liable to such severe famine as are the Districts situ-
ated to the west and south, but contains several tracts in which distress
is caused by drought. The terrible famine of r7go
Famine. extended to this District and in r 8 -
7 3 4 People and
cattle died by thousands. Distress was felt in r 803-4, and the famine
of r83q visited Cawnpore with frightful severity. Cattle died by herds,
and whole villages were depopulated. In i8fio-r some distress was
felt; but the extension of canal-irrigation has been very effective to pre-
vent famine; and in 1868-9 and r8gq-8 there was little damage. In
î8g6-7 distress was severely felt in the parts not protected by canals,
and was, as usual, aggravated by the inrush of starving people from
Bundelkhand. In February, 1897, r3q,6oo persons were in receipt
of relief, and more than 4 lakhs was spent on relief works. barge
advances were made for seed, bullocks, and wells, and the District
The District officer is usually assisted by two members of the Indian
Civil Service, and by four Deputy-Collectors recruited
Administration. in India. A tahsildâr resides at the head-quarters
of each tahsil, and two Executive Engineers.in charge of divisions of
the Lower Ganges Canal are stationed at Cawnpore city.